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Taylor Heath

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Surveillance

By 2014, the government plans
to have 5,625 set up in the
Washington D.C. area.

*Question: As a student living
in D.C., how do you feel
about this plan?
NSA & Surveillance
Controversy over Mass Surveillance
The Future of Surveillance
Policy Recommendation
Used as early as 1965
Cameras in public places send a signal to
would-be-criminals that their actions are
going to be documented for legal purposes
Policy Objective
General Policy Guidelines
2010-2012: D.C. metro police increased the use of security cameras in criminal court cases
Surveillance became increasingly widespread during the Cold War
2006: DC installed neighborhood
crime cameras across the district
As of 2013, there are 4,775 security cameras being used by the U.S. government
Cities all across America
are expected to have
30,000 unmanned aerial vehicles
(UAV) cameras by 2020 for
military and commercial uses.
NSA was originally called the Armed Forces Security Agency
the current NSA logo is an eagle holding Saint Peter’s key, which represents security
After 9/11, NSA started listening in on domestic phone calls
In 2006, President Bush authorized the seizure of evidence in Rep. William Jefferson's office through methods of surveillance. This warrantless wiretapping controversy prompted Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzalez and FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III to threaten to resign. (source: "The Washington Post")
Many companies are involved in the domestic surveillance willingly. Internet service providers and telephone service companies (i.e. Verizon) give NSA access to their data systems
NSA has been involved in worldwide economic espionage
Foreign Intelligence Service Court (FISC) currently allows NSA surveillance to be used against U.S. citizens/people on U.S. soil (source: Federal Judicial Center)
The Nixon Administration worked with the NSA to listen to the
communications of war protestors
NSA has been riddled with controversy over its existence. During the Vietnam War, the agency was reported to have falsely identified targets in the Gulf of Tonkin, which ultimately led to the escalation of the war.
The Agency handles many cases involving signals intelligence (SIGINTEL), focusing primarily on communications and cyber intelligence, but has no ground operations like the CIA does
In 2013, Edward Snowden released information that the NSA
had metadata on everyone’s telephone calls, emails. etc.
Metadata is pieces of data that make information identifiable.
If, for instance, person A sent an email to person B, the NSA
can have access to the timestamp and email addresses
involved, but not the content of the email. To see the
actual content, they would need a FISC warrant.

Many localities support national surveillance too, not just federal government.
In some states, traffic cameras, ATM cameras, etc. are able to be accessed by the government, which have caused heated disputes between civilians and the state.

Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) website includes maps and lists of all locations w/ public surveillance cameras

Studies conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center and the Metropolitan Police Department show that security cameras have no direct effect on crime rates in areas that have surveillance cameras

Federal government often accesses local surveillance cameras since D.C. houses such a high number of federal resources
Chicago has the most cameras in U.S. (with over 6,000 surveillance cameras!)
Spies on foreign governments and foreign individuals
Protects against property theft and vandalism
Surveillance- local or national- is considered by many to go against people's civil liberties (next, they will be in public bathrooms!... and then the private ones)
Surveillance cameras require constant monitoring to be effective, which isn't feasible
"Those who give up liberty for safety
deserve neither." - Benjamin Franklin
Cameras tend to make some people feel
more secure, which in turn, increases
foot traffic in certain areas
Current Surveillance
"If you have nothing to hide, then it shouldn't be
a problem." People are already in the public,
which overlaps with the idea of being watched
by a closed circuit for policing or safety reasons
National Security Surveillance Act
(2006): bill that would've established
procedures for the review of
electronic surveillance programs
(not yet passed in the
House or the Senate)
Technology requires government funding
Rally in D.C.
Saturday, October 26, 2013

Columbus Circle @ D.C. Union Station
Stopwatching.us, a large coalition
of 100+ public advocacy programs & companies

local D.C. residents, activists, researchers, whistleblowers, out-of state residents, mostly males, middle-aged adults + teens, anti-surveillance folks
rally against mass surveillance
to ask people to sign petitions that would prompt Congress to "rein in the NSA"
Taylor Heath
William Hofmann
Danny Irving
Taiybah Hessami
Sara Jenis
Susan Huang
Emily Horgan

There are 30 million cameras today in the U.S.
Video Surveillance Policy Statement:
What's all the fuss about?!
"I am against national surveillance because..."

"Wave hello, you're on camera!"
Ordinary lamp post...
or NSA's secret eyes?
The main concern most people have is that they
don't know
when they are being watched.
It is clear that we need some sort of surveillance in D.C. and across the country. However, the U.S. government needs to find the balance between protecting the citizens of the United States, while preserving the privacy of the people.
to find the line between
maintaining citizens' privacy
and ensuring people’s safety
I. The government is not allowed to surveil under a person’s private property without permission and/or probably cause.

II. If there is probably cause, government officials are allowed to surveil this person, or people, even if it is on their private property.

III. Surveillance should only be required in large public places for the purpose of ensuring the safety of the greater public.
Local Responses to Surveillance
Background of Surveillance

Follow us on Twitter!
(source: D.C. Metropolitan
Police Department)
(additional sources:
National Security Agency/
Central Security Service
Public Information)
(source: Stopwatching.us)
(source of inspiration: "Evaluating the Use of Public Surveillance Cameras for Crime Control and Prevention" by the Urban Institute Justice Policy Center)
(source: "Homeland Security News Wire")
(source: National Information
Standards Organization Press)
(sources: "The Washington Times,"
D.C. Metropolitan Police
Department website)
(sources: "The Huffington Post,"
"The New York Times")
Full transcript