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Transcript of Nuclear Fusion
"Fusion Energy." : Achieving Fusion Power. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
"ITER - the Way to New Energy." ITER - the Way to New Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
"ITER: A Brief History of Fusion." - 09 October 2009. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2013.
"Plasma boundary phenomena in tokamaks"
P.C. Stangeby and G.M. McCracken 1990 Nucl. Fusion 30 1225 Why fusion research? The silverbullet of energy Past, Present, Future Where is fusion reasearch happening? Fast Facts: What does nuclear fusion look like? - powers the sun and the stars
- happens deep inside the core of
- fuels our heat and light
- "fusion" of lights atoms
(like hydrogen) at super high
temperatures like those at the
center of the sun (15 million ºC).
- 600 million tons of hydrogen is
being converted into helium per
second, releasing heat and energy In a nutshell: proton-proton chain which starts with
protons, and through a bunch of steps,
turns them into helium. Total energy is less
than the energy of the protons, thus releasing
energy Conditions for fusion on an Earthly scale: Fusion Technology plants would be safe with no "meltdown" possibilities no storage or transport of radioactive materials no CO2 greenhouse gas
emissions Why is fusion energy so important? abundant fuel "If we used the lithium in one laptop battery, half a bath full of water in a lithium power plant, it
would produce as much electrictity as 40 tonnes of coal." Fusion for Energy, 2012 Thats 330,000 kWh! Basic Fuels Needed for Fusion: Deuterium & Tritium water & lithium generated from 0.033 grams/litre of water plentiful, easily made
(in batteries of cell
phones/laptops). Fusion reaction is 4 millionx more energetic
than a chemical reaction!! Fusion for Energy, 2012 Coal burning plant:
1.5 million tonnes coal To produce 7 billion kWh.... Fusion plant:
100 kg deuterium,
3 tonnes natural lithium Emits NO pollution or green house gases
Major by-product is helium - non-toxic gas "Runaway" or "meltdown" situations are impossible - Low density at 1 gram of deuterium/tritium in a volume of 1,000 cubic meters
- Any malfunction will automatically
- Deuterium & litium are not radioactive
- If the process begins to run too fast, the extra heat will hinder the process and shut the reaction down - not a chain reaction. - no importing of materials, can use sea water
- no "dump sites" for used materials By 2050, global population
will increase from 6 to 9 billion -
2 to threefold increase in energy
80% of totady's developed world's
energy comes from fossil fuels. Fusion can be a predicatable, energy output intensive solution. Two light atomic nuclei are fused together to form a heavier atom - hydrogen nuclei are combined to form helium. - 2 types of hydrogen - deuterium and
tritium are heated to over 150 million °C making
- the plasma is contained in a magnetic confinement system
- D-T fuse to produce helium and high-speed neutrons realeasing 17.6 MeV of energy per reaction CCFE, 2011 Fusion to power grid? - neutrons slowed on a blanket of denser material
- heat provided from slowing down will be converted into steam to power turbines
- energy from turbines will power on the grid Components of a fusion power plant:
http://www.ccfe.ac.uk/Fusion_power.aspx Types of Fusion Reactors Fusion history is still happening! ITER, 2009 Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, 1950s - mid-1950s "fusion machines" were operating in the Soveit Union, UK, US, France, Germany, and Japan
- late 1950s: "tokamak" created in Soviet Russia
- 1990s: experiments with real fusion fuels - Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in Princeton, NJ and Joint European Torus (JET) in Culham, UK. Recently.. - Japan, JT-60, has reached highest levels of density, tempertaure, and confinement time.
- US fusion installation have reached temperatures of several hundred million °C Future.. - projections of achieving fusion on a large scale by 2030 A one gigawatt fusion power plant will use about 20 grams of tritium and 13 grams of deuterium per hour. Science of Fusion Steps:
1. Two pairs of protons fuse, forming two deuterons
2. Each deuteron fused with an additional proton to form helium-3
3. Two helium-3 nuclei fuse to create beryllium-6, which disintigrate from instabibilty into two protons and helium-4
4. The reaction releases two neutrinos, two positrons and gamma rays. 4 1H + 2 e --> 4He + 2 neutrinos + 6 photons E=mc² E=mc: lost mass (m), multiplied by the square of the speed of light (c), results in a HUGE (E), which is the amount of energy created by a fusion reaction. The resulting helium has lost mass and gained energy, how? Fusion for Energy. Fusion research sites Fuel
Time temperature in excess of 100 million degrees (hotter the plasma the more fusion occurs) approximately 1 milligram per m3 two isotopes of hydrogen - deuterium and tritium n*t > 10^20 sec/m^3 "Lawson criterion": Basic keep conditions as long a possible! Not so Basic ITER: - "the way"
- 2x the size of JET
- plasma volume of 840 cubic meters
- 23,000 tons (as heavy as 3 Eiffel Towers!)
- 5,000 workers
- 104 kilometers
- 50,000 visitors since 2007
- goal of 50 MW input power for 500 MW output power
- 150 million degrees C
- 13 billion euros ITER JET JET: - began operating in 1983
- reached 16 megawatts
- 350 scientists
- reached 100 million degrees C
- 2,800 tonnes
- plasma volume 80 m^3
- input 573 MW EFDA, 2012 Tokamaks:
Laser ignition: - high-energy beams of laser light, electrons, or ions, are concentrated at a target
- low efficiency - invented in 1950s by Soviet physicists
- uses a magnetic field to confine plasma
- shape of a torus
- ITER & JET Why is fusion taking so long? Temperatures:
Money! : greater than 100 million degrees
greater than 3 atmospheres
at power densities 3 x larger higher than the density of the sun
10-20 billion dollars fusion needs......