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TOK - Human Science
Transcript of TOK - Human Science
Cause and Effect We need to be careful of assuming that one event is caused by another, just because it happened at the same time or afterward. Difference between human and natural sciences The key difference between human and natural sciences is one of consciousness. Whereas natural scientists study objects and organisms that are unaware of their own existence, human scientists are concerned with organisms that are. Quantitative and qualitative data Durkheim (the naturalist approach) and Weber (study its individual members) Inside and Outside methods But human science can be thought of as a way of offering incomplete theories which can then be build upon. because it is good to get hold of a good concept and gradually refine and extend it with greater and greater subtlety, and improve. so the theories of human science may not be so focused on the conclusions, because with theories, it is the process that is the important, rather than the results that they find. Whilst natural scientists investigate in order to explain – the behavior of social insects, for example, or the composition of the earth’s crust – human scientists are investigating in order to arrive at a course of action that will reform or improve an aspect of society. natural scientists have ethically controversial methods, for example, biologists carrying out live animal experimentation. But for human scientists, the fact that they are researching into other human beings means they have to constantly question the moral boundaries of their methods. the Milgram Experiment Participants were given the role of teachers to ask questions to a student rigged up to a penalizing shock chair, and would be penalized if given a wrong answer. As the wrong answers increase the voltage would increase to a point where it's lethal. The twist is that there is no shock, the teacher is the only participant. The results are shocking. 5% (26 out of 40) of the volunteers preceded all the way to the maximum 450 volts charge, although many were obviously uncomfortable doing so. Only one volunteer refused outright to go over 300 volts.