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TOK - Human Science

ICD Advanced, term one
by

Richard Li

on 29 March 2013

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Transcript of TOK - Human Science

Starting points The aims of the human sciences Methods to study human beings Ethical issues Arriving at a conclusion The end There are many aspects of human sciences The aims of virtually all these human sciences are the same: to explain human behavior, formulate theories to predict it, and then develop remedies for the problems identified by those predictions. Human Science Naturalist and Interpretivist approaches The human sciences are very different from natural sciences because there is almost always a purpose to their research. With so many different ways of analyzing and studying human science, it's hard to come up with any firm conclusions. ~Richard Li Sociology Anthropology
Human biology
Business studies
Communication studies
Criminology
Demography
Development studies
Economics
Education
Human geography
Industrial relations
Law
Media studies
Medicine
Methodology
Philosophy
Political science
Political theory
Psychiatry
Psychology
Public administration
Social policy
Cause and Effect We need to be careful of assuming that one event is caused by another, just because it happened at the same time or afterward. Difference between human and natural sciences The key difference between human and natural sciences is one of consciousness. Whereas natural scientists study objects and organisms that are unaware of their own existence, human scientists are concerned with organisms that are. Quantitative and qualitative data Durkheim (the naturalist approach) and Weber (study its individual members) Inside and Outside methods But human science can be thought of as a way of offering incomplete theories which can then be build upon. because it is good to get hold of a good concept and gradually refine and extend it with greater and greater subtlety, and improve. so the theories of human science may not be so focused on the conclusions, because with theories, it is the process that is the important, rather than the results that they find. Whilst natural scientists investigate in order to explain – the behavior of social insects, for example, or the composition of the earth’s crust – human scientists are investigating in order to arrive at a course of action that will reform or improve an aspect of society. natural scientists have ethically controversial methods, for example, biologists carrying out live animal experimentation. But for human scientists, the fact that they are researching into other human beings means they have to constantly question the moral boundaries of their methods. the Milgram Experiment Participants were given the role of teachers to ask questions to a student rigged up to a penalizing shock chair, and would be penalized if given a wrong answer. As the wrong answers increase the voltage would increase to a point where it's lethal. The twist is that there is no shock, the teacher is the only participant. The results are shocking. 5% (26 out of 40) of the volunteers preceded all the way to the maximum 450 volts charge, although many were obviously uncomfortable doing so. Only one volunteer refused outright to go over 300 volts.
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