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Ecology (Principles of Ecology)

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Transcript of Ecology (Principles of Ecology)

Ecology Principles of Ecology Kelly's Slides :D Symbiotic Relationships Immigration Vs. Emigration Carrying Capacity The Levels of Organization Keystone Species What is Ecology? Types of Consumers Food Web and Food Chain Energy Pyramid Energy In Ecosystems Autotrophs: (producers) are self nourishing, they make there own food Energy Pyramid: is a diagram that illustrates the energy used by the trophic levels. Food Web: model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem Ecology is defined as: a branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings a keystone species is a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem Mutualism : An interaction in which both organisms benefit from one another. Emigration: the movement of individuals out of a population to another population. Definition: Maximum number of individual types of species the environment can support. Heterotrophs: (consumers) are organisms that get their nourishment from other organisms Herbivores: plant eaters
Carnivores: meat eaters
Omnivores: meat and plant
Detritivores/Decomposers: break down organic matter into simpler compounds Trophic Levels: Levels of nourishment in a food chain. Tertiary Consumer
Secondary Consumer
Primary Consumer
Producer Food Chain Food Chain: Sequence that links species by their feeding relationships Reef Shark Parrot Fish so essentially it's just studying how we all relate to each other But it studies such a wide range of organisms and environments that ecologists need to draw from a lot of fields like hydrology, climatology, oceanography, physics, chemistry, and more. Pssst... There are five. Organisms Every singular living thing is an organism From this... ...To these And everywhere in between Example: Bees pollinate plants for reproduction, and in return the flower provides the bees with nectar as food. Algae Populations A populations is a group of the same species that lives in one area Communities A group of different species that live together in one area Like in Escalon, we've got people... and cows... and cats and dogs And peacocks that enjoy waking up entire neighborhoods Ecosystems They include all of the organisms in the area, as well as nonliving things They can be pretty small like on a leaf or in a log Biome A biome is like an ecosystem since it includes everything but biomes tend to be much bigger and include climate conditions so examples of biomes are deserts and rainforests in an ecosystem There are biotic and abiotic factors biotic factors are the living things in the ecosystem. they each have a role in the ecosystem abiotic factors are the nonliving things. The balance of them affects how the biotic factors survive Biotic Abiotic Loses up to 90% of energy between trophic levels Habitat vs. Niche Habitat: all the biotic and abiotic factors in an area where an organism lives While Ecological Niche: all the physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce. Food
Abiotic conditions
Behavior Competition Competition: a type of community interactions, occurs when two organisms fight for the same limited resources Interspecific Competition: Two members of a different species fight for a resource
-Ex: Space
Intraspecific Competition: Two members of the same species fight for a resource
- Ex: Mate Intraspecific Interspecific *I'm making things pink to annoy Anthony If a keystone species went extinct, other species would be negatively affected imagine if the mountain lion population completely disappeared. The rabbit population would increase way too rapidly the increased number of rabbits would have to compete with deer and other herbivores for food. and there wouldn't be enough food for them all The ecosystem depends on rabbits having predators to keep the population under control so other species still have enough to eat Food Chains a food chain is a sequence that links species by their feeding relationships they use arrows to show the energy flow from the prey to their predators they always start with a producer, which is eaten by a primary consumer,
who is eaten by a secondary consumer, who is eaten by a tertiary consumer here. have an example. the blueberries are eaten by the deer then the deer are eaten by bears the arrows show where the energy is going Primary and Secondary Succession Ecological Footprint Commensalism: is the relationship between two organisms where one of the organisms is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor helped. Example: Barnacles on a whale, barnacles attach themselves to whales to get the food drifting around th whale. Parasitism: is a relationship where a species directly harms its host. Examples: Fleas on a dog, the fleas bit and suck the blood of dogs, causing them to itch. Immigration: the movement of individuals into a population from another population. Example: two bees flying into your house because they saw flowers. Example: Bees flying out of your house back to their hive. -Can change when the environment changes -The actual size of the population is usually higher or lower than the carrying capacity. Primary: establishment and development of an ecosystem in an area thst was previously uninhabited. Secondary: is the reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact. - Secondary Succession has no end.
-plants and other organisms that remain start the process of regrowth.
-Example of primary succession: Lava cooled and left a rock, then it starts to get broken down by wind, rain ,and ice.This breaks the rock down to smaller peices. Definition: the amount of land necessary to produce and maintain enough shelter, food and water, energy, and waste. -Depends on a number of factors, including: amount of efficiency of resource use, and the amount and toxicity of waste produced. -The Average U.S citizens ecological footprint covers an area larger than 24 football fields.
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