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Group Project

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Aksum

The great trading empire of Africa Aksum Empire Aksums Timeline The Rise of Aksum Culture of the Aksumites The Great Trading city: Aksum Aksum was once one of the most importent trading cities of Africa. Aksum controlled many smaller cities on the cost of the Red Sea. The main trading port for Aksum was the town of Adulis. Almost all of the over sea trading was moved through Adulis. Salts, Ivory, Cloths, Brass, Iron, Gold, Glass, Olive oil, wines, and many animals such as Giraffes & elephants were the most common trading goods. http://wysinger.homestead.com/aksum.html Sources List 1000 B.C.

According to legend, Menelik I, the son of King Solomon of Israel and Queen Makeda of Sheba, founds a Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia (c. 930 B.C.)

800 B.C.

Semetic speaking peoples from south Arabia cross the Red Sea and settle in Ethiopia (c. 750-500 B.C.)

300 B.C.

Greek culture begins to influence Axum (c. 300 B.C.)

1 A.D.

Zoskales, the earliest known king of Axum, rules (c. 50 A.D.)

100 A.D.

The empire of Axum, modern day Ethiopia in Africa, expands control over the Red Sea ( c. 100 A.D. )
Aksum becomes the royal capital (c. 150 A.D.)

300 A.D.

Coptic Christian missionaries from Egypt and Syria reach Axum (341 A.D.)
Axum conquers Kush and Nubia (c. 350 A.D.)
King Ezana of Axum converts to Chrisianity (350 A.D.)

500 A.D.

King Kaleb of Axum annexes Yemen (525 A.D.)

500 A.D.

The rise of Islam cuts Axum off from its trading partners leading to its decline (c. 700 A.D.)

900 A.D.

Yodit, a Jewish queen, defeats the last Axumite king, Del Na'od, and attempts to eradicate Christianity from Ethiopia (c. 900 A.D.)
the Solomonic dynasty falls and is replaced by the Zagwe dynasty (916 A.D.)

1000 A.D.

Axumite empire shattered as warlords vie for control (1140 A.D.)
Solomnic dynasty resumes in Axum (1270 A.D.) The Kingdom of Aksum or Axum, also known as the Aksumite Empire mostly the current northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, existing from approximately 100–940 AD. It grew from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period ca. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD, and was a major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India. The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency, the state established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. Eventually, the Islamic Empire took control of the Red Sea and most of the Nile, forcing Aksum into economic isolation. Northwest of Aksum in modern day Sudan, the Christian states of Maqurra and Alwa lasted till the 13th century before becoming Islamic. Aksum, isolated, nonetheless still remained Christian.
After a second golden age in the early 6th century, the empire began to decline, eventually ceasing its production of coins in the early 7th century. Around this same time, the Aksumite population was forced to go farther inland to the highlands for protection. Local history holds that a Jewish Queen named Yodit (Judith) or "Gudit" defeated the empire and burned its churches and literature, but while there is evidence of churches being burned and an invasion around this time, her existence has been questioned by some modern authors.
Another possibility is that the Aksumite power was ended by a southern pagan queen named Bani al-Hamwiyah, possibly of the tribe al-Damutah or Damoti (Sidama). After a short Dark Age, the Aksumite Empire was succeeded by the Zagwe dynasty in the 11th century or 12th century, although limited in size and scope. However, Yekuno Amlak, who killed the last Zagwe king and founded the modern Solomonic dynasty traced his ancestry and his right to rule from the last emperor of Aksum, Dil Na'od.
Other reasons for the decline are more scientific in nature. Climate change and trade isolation are probably also large reasons for the decline of the culture. Overfarming of the land led to decreased crop yield, which in turn led to decreased food supply. This, in turn with the changing flood pattern of the Nile and several seasons of drought, would make it less important in the emerging European economy. The Fall Of
Aksum The Empire of Aksum was one of the first African cities economically and politically ambitious enough to issue its own coins. Which were made of gold, silver, and bronze. The left one reads in Greek "AWMITW BACIEYC", "King of Aksum". The right one reads in Greek: ΔC CC, "King Endybis". Horses were a treasured animal in the Aksumites lifestyle. Not only used in warfare as calvay forces, Horses were valued possessions, and in many of the lands under Aksum rule, tombs were discovered for horses. Each horse was buried in elaborate silver, gold and jewelled harnesses. There hasn't be enough artifacts found to draw a clear picture of the exact clothing style of Aksum. But there have been several findings of a robe like clothing that suggest the start of the abaya clothing most commonly seen in the Islamic cultures today. Axum by Yuri Mikhailovich Kobishchanov and Joseph W. Michels (Nov 1, 1979) Books Online Egypt, Kush, Aksum: Northeast Africa (African Kingdoms of the Past Series) by Kenny Mann (Nov 1996) The purple areas are that
of Aksum Rule.
The orange was apart of Aksum
until it was conquered by other
kingdoms. The Leaders of Aksum King Ezana II of Axum
Roughly around 315 AD ~
The First Ethiopian Christian King Ethiopian King Ezana II of the Aksumite Empire in the 4th century AD, he was converted to Christianity by his Greek slave-teacher Frumentius in 324. The Aksumite Empire became one of the first major empires to convert to Christianity. Zoskales 100 AD

Endubis 270 AD (Coinage begins)

Ezana 320 AD

Eon 400 AD

Kaleb 500 AD

Gersem 600 AD

Armah 614 AD

al-Walid 705-715 AD http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b1ezana-axum.htm The empire roughly existed sometime around 300-900 A.D, but other sources say there is evidence that suggests it started at 150 A.D. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/15 http://www.archaeology.org/0905/abstracts/aksum.html
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