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Arabian Horse

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Sarah Mio

on 30 May 2013

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Transcript of Arabian Horse

Predicting The Evolution of A Modern Horse's Descent By: Sarah Mio 1. Research the evolution of horses from 54 million years ago Hyracotherium to the present Equus Initiate and Plan Horse Evolution Over Time 2. Choose a modern horse with 3 adaptations. Initiate and Plan 3. Choose an isolated geographical area of choice Initiate and Plan -The earliest recognizable member of the horse family, was the hyracotherium -this tiny ancestor roamed the warm subtropical forests of the eocene epoch, feeding on the soft leafy vegetation -its teeth were small and slender, and contributed little to the grinding of food -about 40 million years ago, the climate became cooler and dryer, favoring the spread of grass lands and the reduction of forest habitat -horses needed more durable teeth to break down the grass leaves, which now contained grains of silica -the premolars progressively became larger and more complex and developed patterns of bumps and ridges -with merychippus, which lived about 15 million years ago, a second major advance began in the adaptation for grazing or eating grass Initiate and Plan (continued) -a bone like substance (cementum) formed around the crowns of the developing teeth filling the depressions around the bumps and ridges, making the teeth very big and strong -the teeth continued to become progressively higher and extended far into the sockets in the skull and jaw -the proportions and shape of the skull changed to accommodate these small teeth -they had flexible 4 toed feet, and as forests gave way to grasslands, the feet of horses adapted for running on harder ground -the middle toe increased in size while the side toes decreased -the changes in the foot bones gave the horses a longer stride and better speed/endurance. http://cowboyfrank.net/real/equus/equis_transcript.htm 1. Hyracotherium
55 million years 2. Orohippus
52-45 million years 3. Mesohippus
37-32 million years 4. Miohippus
32-25 million years 5. Parahippus
24-17 million years 6. Merychippus
17-11 million years 7. Pliohippus
12-6 million years Equus
5 million years-present http://cowboyfrank.net/real/equus/equis_transcript.htm Arabian Horse: Body Size: Stamina: Bone Density/Strength: -between 14 hands and 15.2 hands (56 inches to 62 inches at the top of the shoulder). They are fine to medium boned and weigh from 800lbs to 1000lbs. -excels at endurance racing because of a shorter, stronger back that allows it to carry substantial weight in comfort; large nostrils and trachea for greater lung capacity; dense, compact bone; and lighter muscling which dissipates heat and lactic acid more readily. Top racers complete 100-mile races in less than 10 hours. http://www.jarvisinsurance.com/breed-spotlight/arabian.php http://horses.about.com/od/breeds/p/arabian.htm -have dense, strong bone, sound feet, and good hoof walls. http://horsebreedslist.com/horse-breeds/97/arabian Isolated geographical choice: Sonoran Desert: is located in Arizona. It is isolated from all people with the exception of tribes, however its vast size of 120,000 square miles will give the Arabian horse plenty of space to be free and independent without being disrupted. Initiate and Plan (Continued) -Przewalski’s horse is believed to be the only remaining example of a wild horse; the last remaining modern horse to have evolved by natural selection. -Ponies were first formed around the same time as horses, but weren’t considered individuals, more so “horses in the making” until after more studies when scientists discovered that they were in fact horses, just smaller and containing some different characteristics -Ponies have thicker manes, tails and coat, as well as significantly shorter legs, wider bodies, heavier bones, thicker necks and shorter heads. -Mitochondrial DNA research has shown that the Przewalski's Horse is not the ancestor of modern domestic horses http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/7961/0 Initial number of horses: zero horses live in this desert. Initiate and Plan 4. Decide on an evolutionary time period and possible effects: Food sources There are countless plants for animals to eat. Horses in particular eat fruit from mesquite trees, which are located in this desert. Also, several other fruits and plants can be found throughout the Sonoran desert, to ensure the Arabian horse will survive. Predators There are no predators of any kind on this island, as all wildlife is nowhere near as big as the Arabian horse. However, there is a vast population of wildlife including 60 mammal species, 350 bird species, 20 amphibian species, and over 100 reptile species. Geographical Conditions Temperatures vary between 50 degrees in the winter, and 86 degrees in the summer. The terrain is rough, however there are various sand dunes and grasses throughout. http://www.sonorannews.com/archives/2011/110427/community-DAC.html http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/sonoran_desert_climate.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonoran_Desert I decided to study my horse in the evolutionary time period of 10,000 years ago, as the earliest species existed 54 million years ago, and countless horse species have evolved since then. -Today, the Arabian horse stands between 14 and 15 hands tall and weighs 850-1,000 lbs. Male horses are generally larger than females, so with that knowledge I predict that those will be the ones capable of survival in the future. -Arabian horses are known for their stamina and endurance, and compete in racing, cattle and ranch work. I predict that since they participate in so much physical activity, they will maintain their stamina and endurance in the future. If they continue to do what they do now. -Arabian horses all have black skin, regardless of their coat colour. That characteristic hasn't changed over the years, and unless something significant happens, I predict that the skin colour will remain the same. http://www.akfentertainment.com/akf/ArabianHorse.htm http://www.yeguadasantana.com/The-Arabian-Horse.html Although the constant racing, cattle and ranch work may keep the horses endurance and stamina consistent, it could ruin their reputation for having strong bones in the future. The constant wear and tear on the bones could result in some horses not being able to take it, and could effect the bones in the future. Perform and Record 5. Compare the following genera: Similarities and differences Loxolophus, Hyracotherium, Mesohippus, Parahippus, Merychippus, Pliohippus, Equus http://dinosaurs.about.com/od/otherprehistoriclife/a/horses.htm Perform and Record 6. Compare the Przewalski's horse with two modern horses and two modern ponies Przewalski Horse Belgian Horse Thoroughbred Horse Java Pony Shetland Pony Perform and Record 6. Compare the Przewalski's horse with two modern horses and two modern ponies Modern Ponies Modern Horses The common distinction between Przewalski's horse and the ponies, is nonetheless the height difference. The ponies are significantly smaller, and weigh less. The Przewalski horse is the last remaining wild species of horses. All other modern day horses including the ones previously listed are either domesticated or descended from horses which were once domesticated. http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/horses/przewalski/ Perform and Record 7. Compare your horse breed to modern horses and ponies Horses Ponies -Arabian horses have curved faces rather than straight faces
-Arabian horses can lift their tail more, but general horses just keep their tails down
-Arabian horses have one less vertebrae in their backs http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20061126072425AADJmRO -Ponies generally have stocky frames with short legs, big chests, and thick necks
-Arabian horses have better stamina
-Arabian horses are good for racing/ranch work, whereas ponies are good for harness sports like pulling a cart http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-difference-between-a-horse-and-a-pony.htm Perform and Record 8. Which adaptations in modern horses and ponies are specific to which environmental factors? -The horse's survival mechanism is to identify danger and flee from it, rather than fight, however a cornered horse will sometimes fight to defend a foal -The horses long neck enables it to eat short grass without lying down, and also to raise its head high to improve its range of vision as it looks for danger -Its eyes are set in the sides of the head for increased all-around vision -have large nostrils to smell danger, large ears to hear everything around it, and large eyes that detect movement very well http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4223 Some environmental factors could be pollution, effecting the horses fresh air/food it eats, lack of food, resulting in starvation, lack of water, causing dehydration, etc. Perform and Record 9. Predict the appearance of your modern horse breed's descendent after the evolutionary time period you chose. I predict that.... -the horse will increase in size, as it is constantly running freely, it's muscles will be bigger
-the bones will change shape to better suit the horse's needs-running, working
-the skin colour will remain the same (black) as it has not changed yet
-short backs will become longer due to the demand on every part in the body
-head shape will remain the same, nothing is affecting it
-coat colours will vary Analyze and Interpret 1. Describe your horses breed's niche. What evolutionary changes might increase the horse's success in that niche? The Arabian horse is a working horse. It races, does ranch work, etc. Naturally, however it maintains cutting grass because horses eat grass. This acts as a win win situation, because the horse gets food, and the grass gets cut. The horse cuts grass that humans may not be able to cut as quickly as the horses do. Overtime, if ideal weather conditions are maintained to allow grass to grow, then the Arabian horse can continue to help out in the environment. However, if there is a drought, grass will no longer grow, and the horse's niche will no longer exist, That could give rise to other niche possibilities, however. Analyze and Interpret 2. Which mechanisms of evolutionary change might influence the evolution of the horse breed you chose? Some possible evolutionary mechanisms could be: -food becomes more plentiful, horses are forced to adapt to new foods which could give them better nutrition, making them healthier which will be passed on -Populations of horse's predators increased, forcing the horses to run more than they already do, causing the muscles and stamina of the horse to be even stronger as they continue to evolve -Environmental conditions cause the terrain to be rough and hard, negatively impacting the horses bones, causing them to wear down and weaken -Plants change, forcing horses to chew harder, and eventually they adapt and gain more molars as they evolve Analyze and Interpret 3. How might those mechanisms affect the breed's chance of survival? -More predators could result in a decrease in the Arabian horse population, as they would be killed and eaten more frequently -Perhaps the horses were unable to adapt to the new abundance of foods and could die of starvation Analyze and Interpret 4. In what ways might the horse breed adapt to the various environmental factors you decided would exist? -More predators means more running. The Arabian horses have good stamina and are able to run, however any organism can only run for so long. It definitely would be hard to adapt to dealing with more predators, but it is possible, as it occurs in several areas around the world. The horses could form packs, and intimidate the predators, or hide from them. -If the horses couldn't adapt to the new abundance of plants, then its up to them to find food. They would either have to deal with the new plants, or go searching for new food. Any organism hungry and wanting to survive will go looking for food, and in the desert there are most likely several options available. -Hard and rough terrain can't really be dealt with, it is what it is. If the horses realized that the terrain isn't necessarily the best to run on, they could adapt to that to save their bones, however it may be difficult as they are naturally runners. -If plants become harder to chew, it might be difficult for the horses to get used to, but once they adapt, future generations will be advantaged with the molars, and the problem will be no more. Analyze and Interpret 5. How did the other organisms in the geographical region you chose exert selective pressure on your horse breed? -Most organisms adapted to the new conditions (the arabian horse) and accepted the new environment -Others, however felt threatened by the Arabian horse breed, causing them to stop eating and eventually die. The ones able to adapt to the new conditions were the ones best fit, and they passed on that allele to generations to come, so the new addition to the desert would be no big deal as time went on. Analyze and Interpret 6. Can you test your prediction? Why or why not? -It is nearly impossible to set my predictions to play, as it isn't realistic and would take far too long to witness adaptations, changes in the environment, evolution within the desert and with the Arabian horse. Communicate Your Findings 7. Clearly explain the possible evolutionary changes in the horse breed you chose and how the changes would help the horse adapt and survive. -Stronger muscles/bones- this would help the horse to survive in a huge desert, as it can physically handle more without getting tired as easily. Also it can stand its own ground in situations where it needs to. -Progressing endurance/stamina- Arabian horses are already very good runners, and if they continue to run at the rate they do, then they will evolve and will be even more capable running far distances -If plants do get tougher, and horses adapt and eventually get molars, then they will be able to eat more varieties of foods, helping them become more nutricious and getting the essential vitamins they need to be successful and strong in their environment -If the horses do get bigger, they will be useful for not only horse racing, but other opportunities aswell. Size can also open up a lot of possible niche's which could benefit both the horse and the environment. Communicate Your Findings Phylogenetic Tree
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