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Bassoon

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Sabrina Hill

on 30 May 2013

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Transcript of Bassoon

Physics of the bassoon Sabrina Hill Preview History
The Basics
Frequency
Volume
Harmonics
Timbre
Review
Closing The evolution of the Bassoon It evolved from a 16th century instrument known by a variety of names - curtal or curtail (English), basson or fagot (French), dulcian or fagott (German), fagotto (Italian), and bajon (Spanish)
In most early music written for the bassoon, it was used merely to play the bass line and it
Became popular in orchestras in 1678
During the 18th century, major solo and orchestral music was written for the bassoon
Today the bassoon is used extensively in the symphony orchestra, opera, and most recently in the contemporary musicals of the 20th century, television, and movie soundtracks. The History of the Bassoon The Basics The bassoon is a double-reed woodwind instrument with a conical bore air column, the bass member of the double-reed family. Its normal range is about 3 octaves, from B1flat to E5flat. The tube, 2.79 m (9 ft 2 in) long, is bent to make a height of 1.22 m (4 ft) and consists of a metal crook on which the reed is placed and four sections of maple or pearwood: the tenor, the boot, the bass, and the bell. Review History
The Basics
Frequency
Volume
Harmonics
Timbre Closing Reeds How they work The bassoon uses a double reed
The reed opens and closes like a valve, pressurizing the pipe when open. Frequency The frequency is the pitch Since the speed of sound through a given medium is the same, the frequency is inversely proportional to the wave length. f= Frequency(Hz)
V= Velocity(of jet stream)
lambda= Wavelength Examples Sound waves in air travel at approximately 330m/s. Calculate the frequency of a 2.5m-long sound
wave. V=330
Wavelength=2.5m
f=? ?=330/2.5

f=132 A wave on a certain bassoon note travels at a speed of 200m/s. Calculate the wavelength of an “A” note sounding at 440Hz. Wavelength= ?
V= 200m/s
f= 440 Hz f= v/(lamda)
(lambda)=f/v
?=440/200
Wavelength=2.2m Volume Sound intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area perpendicular to the wave. Units are typically in watts/m2 or watts/cm2. Volume is how loud a sound is perceived. Harmonics http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/timbre-spectrum.htm#sub1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonance_and_dissonance http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound-pitch-loudness-timbre.htm#sub4 http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound-pitch-loudness-timbre.htm#sub4 harmonic wavelength= (1/nth)/2L Example What is the change in intensity when the sound pressure of a wave changes from 3 to 50 million pascals? Delta I(db)= 20*log(50,000,000/3) Delta I (db)= 144.402 P2= 50mil
P1=3
Delta I (db)= ? What is the volume of a tone with a sound pressure of 1 atm? 1 atm= 101,325 pascal
20log(101,325
=100.11 db A harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency, Timbre Identical pitches or frequencies will sound different through different instruments.

Tone quality and color are synonyms for timbre, as well as the "texture attributed to a single instrument" Examples What is the wavelength of the 3rd harmonic to a pitch of wavelength of 10m? n=3
l=2
harmonic wavelength=? (1/n)
2l (1/3)
2(10) 1/60 m = Example Which harmonic has a wavelength of .125 m to a pitch of wavelength .5 m? C
Why do they sound different? Same pitch, same frequency Demo The different mediums within the instruments make the pitch vibrate differently. Timbre is affected by:
1) Envelope
The beginning attack (Shows extremes in amplitude)





http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound-pitch-loudness-timbre.htm
2) spectrum, which is the distribution of amplitude (or power or intensity) as a function of frequency.
3) Pressure Graph for difference in Sound pressure Demo: octave jump Demo: p and f I= Intensity
db= Decibles
P1= Power
P2=Power Demo: chromatic scale n= harmonic
l= wavelength (1/n)/2L= (1/n)/0.125=.5
(1/n)=1/16
n= 16th harmonic n= ?
L= .125
harmonic wavelength= .5 Rite of Spring
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