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Unit 2: Planting Colonies in North America, 1588-1701
Transcript of Unit 2: Planting Colonies in North America, 1588-1701
Virginia Company (1607)
in North America, 1588-1701
The Spanish, The French, and the Dutch in North America
Missions run by Spanish, Populated by Indians and mestizos.
People of mixed Indian and Spanish ancestry.
"Casta Painting a cuadretes," eighteenth century, Museo Nacional de Virreinato, Tepotzotlán,Mexico.
Source: Pearson Education, 2009
Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec (1605)
Sought to monopolize fur trade
Built alliance with Huron, lived/traded/married
Intercepted water traffic
Fought WITH Huron against Iroquois Conf.
Pueblo resisted Spanish.
Men, women, children slaughtered
Surviving warriors: feet amputated
New Plan: Force Missionaries on residents
1681-1682 Robert La Salle finds/navigates Mississippi River
Fur Trade Domination #winning
Frontier of Inclusion Frontier of Inclusion
Conquest of Natives
Conquest of Natives
Insist Natives accept European cultural norms
Learned native languages & customs
The Dutch and New Netherlands
Dutch East India Company
Dutch West India Company
Attempt to rule mari-time trade
1609: Henry Hudson explored North America
New Amsterdam est.
Compete with French for fur trade
Sought alliance with Iroquois Confederacy
Beaver Wars (1640s-1680s)
Iroquois fought French for control
East Coast to Great Lakes
Look for gold & passage to Indies
No "survivalists" or supplies
1609-1610: "The Starving Time"
Powhatan determined to forge alliance
metal tools and weapons!
Initially helped Jamestown survive
Changed policy in response to English demands
Tobacco Saves The Day! [For Jamestown]
Tobacco trade = first success of Virginia Co.
Problems with tobacco:
exhausts soil of nutrients
Va. Co. divides land into plantations
Poor English enter indentured servitude
English pushed Native Americans out. "Frontier of Exclusion"
Native American Response: Expel the English (1622-1632)
Rejected English colonization with war of attrition
Violence and disease decimates Powhatan tribe
House of Burgesses: Colonial Legislature (1619)
New England Colonies
Wished to reform and purify English church
Kings James I & Charles I: religious repression
Founded in 1620
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Want religious freedom
Strict belief in absolute authority of males; female inferiority
Break away from Church of England
Do NOT break away from C of E
Businessmen & Religious Folks
Hard work & thrift = useful life
Material possession or success sign of God's favor
Pre-destination and "original sin"
Everyone can attain salvation
Equality! (gender, class, race)
Friends of Indians; good relations
The Position of Women
Shared tasks on land with husband, but...
"...a true wife accounts her subjection her honor and freedom."
~ Lucy Winthrop Downing
Married women could not:
"She's a Witch! Burn her!"
Cultural mistrust of women
widows who don't remarry
342 women accused of witchcraft
Salem 1692: 20 tried, convicted, executed
Social and economic tensions
Population increase & migration
Uneven economic growth
Insecurities about independent women
Conflict and War
Indians v. Puritans
Recap: What makes the British different from the French, Dutch, and Spanish?
Growth of English population leads to Indian decimation
1637: Pequots resisted.
WHAT TENSIONS LEAD TO WAR???
Rapid expansion of English colonization led to all of these tensions.
King Philip's War
Bacon's Rebellion & Southern Conflicts
King William's War
Signed aboard the Mayflower
Established self-government in North America!
All adult males signed compact
'America's' First Declaration of Independence
Raised & educated among New Englanders
Image Source: Maine Historical Society. www.mainememory.net/item/
Wanted inclusion for his people
Puritan leaders pressured a grant of sovereign authority of land
Puritans prepare war of conquest
Metacom appeals to Narragansetts for help; seen as act of aggression
All of New England engulfed in war
Metacom and men have upper hand...at first
Iroquois betray Metacom, help Puritans
Colonists annihilate Metacom's men; decapitate Metacom
Impact of 'King Philip's' War?
Iroquois motivated to be intermediaries; become powerful
Iroquois Confederacy and New York colony become allies
Thousands of settlers and Indians died.
~Iroquois Confederacy earns dominance over all
approx. 4,000 natives, 2,000 colonists
Most destructive Indian-colonist conflict in early American history.
Conflicts over land and labor lead to violence in Virginia
Native Americans and Europeans fight over land for tobacco
House of Burgesses
~restricts 'suffrage' to property owners
~landless class still pay taxes
~refused to provide militia to protect against Indian raids
Nathaniel Bacon (wealthy planter)
~led unauthorized Indian war in Virginia
~grew into rebellion against House of Burgesses
Culpeper's Rebellion (North Carolina)
~Like Bacon's, a rebellion of the poor landless v. the rich landowners
Colonial officials in South Carolina encouraged Indian alliance with colonists
~provoke war among Spanish and Indian allies
~decimated native populations for more settlements
Iroquois-English Alliance challenged New France
~French press for more territory
~English seek fur trade monopoly (Northern Bay)
Conflict between England and France...75 years
War and peace off and on
The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course U.S. History #1. YouTube. 31 January 2013.
Let's wrap that up in a nice little bow...
"When is Thanksgiving? Colonizing America: Crash Course #2" YouTube.com 7 February 2013.
"The Natives and the English: Crash Course #3. YouTube.com. 14 February 2013.
A Review, Preview, Review, Preview, and...yeah.
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies: Crash Course #4. YouTube.com. 21 February 2013.