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Unit 2: Planting Colonies in North America, 1588-1701

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Michele Goostree

on 9 August 2016

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Transcript of Unit 2: Planting Colonies in North America, 1588-1701

Jamestown and Powhatan Confederacy
Virginia Company (1607)
Unit 2:
Planting Colonies
in North America, 1588-1701

The Spanish, The French, and the Dutch in North America
New Mexico
Missions run by Spanish, Populated by Indians and mestizos.

"Mestizo"
People of mixed Indian and Spanish ancestry.
"Casta Painting a cuadretes," eighteenth century, Museo Nacional de Virreinato, Tepotzotlán,Mexico.
Source: Pearson Education, 2009
New France
Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec (1605)
Sought to monopolize fur trade
Built alliance with Huron, lived/traded/married
Intercepted water traffic
Fought WITH Huron against Iroquois Conf.
Pueblo resisted Spanish.
Men, women, children slaughtered
Surviving warriors: feet amputated
New Plan: Force Missionaries on residents
1681-1682 Robert La Salle finds/navigates Mississippi River

Fur Trade Domination #winning
Spanish
French
Frontier of Inclusion Frontier of Inclusion
Conquest of Natives
Mining
Farming
Livestock
Conquest of Natives
Alliances
Commerce
Insist Natives accept European cultural norms
Learned native languages & customs
The Dutch and New Netherlands
Dutch East India Company
Dutch West India Company
Attempt to rule mari-time trade
1609: Henry Hudson explored North America
New Amsterdam est.
Compete with French for fur trade
Sought alliance with Iroquois Confederacy
Beaver Wars (1640s-1680s)
Iroquois fought French for control
East Coast to Great Lakes
Look for gold & passage to Indies
No "survivalists" or supplies
1609-1610: "The Starving Time"
60/500 survive
Powhatan determined to forge alliance
metal tools and weapons!
Initially helped Jamestown survive
Changed policy in response to English demands
Tobacco Saves The Day! [For Jamestown]
Tobacco trade = first success of Virginia Co.
Problems with tobacco:
labor intensive
exhausts soil of nutrients
Va. Co. divides land into plantations
Poor English enter indentured servitude
English pushed Native Americans out. "Frontier of Exclusion"
Native American Response: Expel the English (1622-1632)
Rejected English colonization with war of attrition
Violence and disease decimates Powhatan tribe
House of Burgesses: Colonial Legislature (1619)
The
New England Colonies
Puritans
Wished to reform and purify English church
Kings James I & Charles I: religious repression
Plymouth Colony
Founded in 1620
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Want religious freedom
Strict belief in absolute authority of males; female inferiority
Break away from Church of England
Do NOT break away from C of E
Businessmen & Religious Folks
More serious/pious
Hard work & thrift = useful life
Material possession or success sign of God's favor
Quakers
Pre-destination and "original sin"
Everyone can attain salvation
Equality! (gender, class, race)
Friends of Indians; good relations
PACIFISTS
The Position of Women
Shared tasks on land with husband, but...
"...a true wife accounts her subjection her honor and freedom."
~ Lucy Winthrop Downing
Married women could not:
make contracts
own property
vote
hold office
"She's a Witch! Burn her!"
Cultural mistrust of women
non-conformist
"barren"
widows who don't remarry
17th Century:
342 women accused of witchcraft
Salem 1692: 20 tried, convicted, executed
W
H
Y
?
Social and economic tensions
Population increase & migration
Uneven economic growth
Insecurities about independent women
Conflict and War
Indians v. Puritans
Recap: What makes the British different from the French, Dutch, and Spanish?
Growth of English population leads to Indian decimation
1637: Pequots resisted.
Result: decimation
WHAT TENSIONS LEAD TO WAR???
Social
Economic
Religious
Political
Land
Rapid expansion of English colonization led to all of these tensions.
King Philip's War
Bacon's Rebellion & Southern Conflicts
King William's War
Mayflower Compact!
Signed aboard the Mayflower
Established self-government in North America!
All adult males signed compact
'America's' First Declaration of Independence
Metacom
Raised & educated among New Englanders
Image Source: Maine Historical Society. www.mainememory.net/item/
Wanted inclusion for his people
Tribe: Pokanokets
1671:
Puritan leaders pressured a grant of sovereign authority of land
1675: WAR
Puritans prepare war of conquest
Metacom appeals to Narragansetts for help; seen as act of aggression
All of New England engulfed in war
Metacom and men have upper hand...at first
Iroquois betray Metacom, help Puritans
Colonists annihilate Metacom's men; decapitate Metacom
Impact of 'King Philip's' War?
Iroquois motivated to be intermediaries; become powerful
Iroquois Confederacy and New York colony become allies
Thousands of settlers and Indians died.
~Iroquois Confederacy earns dominance over all
approx. 4,000 natives, 2,000 colonists
Most destructive Indian-colonist conflict in early American history.
1670s
Conflicts over land and labor lead to violence in Virginia
Native Americans and Europeans fight over land for tobacco
House of Burgesses
~restricts 'suffrage' to property owners
~landless class still pay taxes
~refused to provide militia to protect against Indian raids
Nathaniel Bacon (wealthy planter)
~led unauthorized Indian war in Virginia
~grew into rebellion against House of Burgesses

1677
Culpeper's Rebellion (North Carolina)
~Like Bacon's, a rebellion of the poor landless v. the rich landowners
Impact
Colonial officials in South Carolina encouraged Indian alliance with colonists
~provoke war among Spanish and Indian allies
~decimated native populations for more settlements
1689
Iroquois-English Alliance challenged New France
~Fur Trade!
~French press for more territory
~English seek fur trade monopoly (Northern Bay)
Conflict between England and France...75 years
War and peace off and on
The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course U.S. History #1. YouTube. 31 January 2013.
Let's wrap that up in a nice little bow...
"When is Thanksgiving? Colonizing America: Crash Course #2" YouTube.com 7 February 2013.
"The Natives and the English: Crash Course #3. YouTube.com. 14 February 2013.
A Review, Preview, Review, Preview, and...yeah.
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies: Crash Course #4. YouTube.com. 21 February 2013.
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