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Transcript of Philip II
King of Spain (1556-1598)
Holy Roman Emperor
Both Were Cousins
Married to Queen Mary I
They had a
Naples- 25 July 1554-1598
England and Ireland- 25 July 1554-17 November 1558
Castile and Aragon- 16 January 1556-13 September 1598
Portugal and Algarves- 25 March 1581- 13 September 1598
England and Ireland
Castile and Aragon
Portugal and Algarves
Philip II was a Catholic- succeeded in exterminating
Protestants in Spain Inquisition to the New
He was vain, bigoted,
ruthless, and ambitious.
of Philip II
Don Carlos of Spain,
Don Carlos of Spain
Daughters of Philip II:
Isabella Clara Eugenia
and Catherine Micaela.
Isabella Clara Eugenia
Rule began the Golden Age- Cultural growth,
literature, music and the visual arts.
The Philippines were named after after Philip II.
Maria Theresa was Roman Catholic and Archduchess of Austria. She was Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and wife of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I was born at Vienna on the 13th of May 1717. She was the eldest daughter of the Emperor Charles VII and his wife Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel.
Philip II was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire. he was tutored by Juan Martinez Siliceo. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish. (James Boyden; Europe, Encyclopedia).
Philip's martial training was under taken by his governor, Juan de Zuniga.
Philip was left by his father to rule at age 16.
Philip often found his authority overruled by locat assemblies, and his word less effective than that of local lords.
Philip ruled from 25 July 1554 - 13 September 1598. (Geoffrey Parker. The Grand Strategy of Philip II, (2000)).
Philip's political training began under his father, having decided to train and initate him in the government of Spain.
The empire included territories in every continent then known to the Europeans.
Gonzalo Perez was the secretary of Philip II from 1541.
Philip faced major difficulties in raising taxes, the collection of which was largely farmed out to local lords. (Koenigsberger, Helmut Georg (2012)).
Philip Co-ruled England with Mary I during his marriage. (Louis Adrian Montrose, University of Chiago Press, 2006).
Charles V had left Philip with a debt of about 36 million ducats and an annual deficit of 1 million ducats. (Gat and Azar (2006)).
Economy inflated heavily during his reign due to the amount of gold taken from the new world. (Koenigsberger, Helmut Georg (2012)).
Philip considered himself by default the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces of the Protestant Reformation. (Pettegree, p. 214.)
In 1588, the English defeated Philip's Spanish Armada, thwarting his planned invasion of the country.
Philip signed the Treaty of Vaucelles to gain the lands of Franche-Compte with Henry II of France in 1556.
In the early part of his reign Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent.
In 1560, Philip II organized a Holy League to fight the Ottomans between Spain and the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta.
In 1585, a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans, insisted direct control over events in the Netherlands despite being over two weeks' ride away in Madrid.
Philip's family gained power through the War of Spanish Succession.
Forced religious unity, turning against Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, and Antonio, Prior of Crato, crowned in 1581.
Formed the Spanish Inquistion against protestants and heretics.
Philip II died in El Escorial, near Madrid, on September 13, 1598 because of cancer- His death involved a severe attack of gout, fever, and dropsy. (Koenigsberger, Helmut Georg (2012)).
Charles V left Philip II with experienced advisers-notably the secretary Francico de los Cobos and the general Duke of Alba. (Encyclopedia of World Biography 2004).
Maria Theresa was the last member of the house of Habsburgs.
She was the Sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma.
She was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress through marriage.
Her father was Emperor Charles VI.
Maria Theresa took power after the death of her Father in 1740.
She claimed the crown using the Pragmatic sanction of 1713.
Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, and France refused to recognize the sanction after the death of Charles VI.
Prussia invades the Province of Silesia and captures it in the War of Austrian Succession.
Maria would later try to re-conquer Silesia unsuccessfully in the seven years' war.
Maria Theresa married Francis
Stephan, duke of Lorraine, and later Francis I Holy Roman Emperor.
Maria had 16 children, including Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Queen Maria Carolina of Naples, duchess Maria Amalia of Parma and two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II, and Leopold II.
Maria was left with no money and an ill equipped army.
Theresa released Marshall Neipperg, who had been imprisoned by her father for his bad performance in the Turkish War.
During the war of Austrian succession the elector of
Bavaria captured Prague and claimed Bohemia.
Charles Albert was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1742.
That day Austrian troops captured Munich, Charles Alberts capital.
Treaty of Breslau ended the hostilities between Austria and Prussia.
French toops fled Bohemia and she Crowned herself Queen of Bohemia in ST. Vitus Cathedral on May 12 1743.
Although she was educated by Jesuits, she later removed them from all institutions of the monarchy, and later confiscated all of their lands.
Maria Theresa unified Austrian and Bohemian chancelleries in May 1749.
Between 1754 and 1764 Maria Theresa's tax reforms greatly improved the economy.
Austria defined a code of civil rights in 1766, which banned witch burnings and took capital punishment off of the penal code.
Charles V was father of Philip II
Charles V lived from 1500-1588, he had ruled the Holy Roman Empire, beginning as Charles I, from 1519-1556.
He had voluntarily retired in 1556 for his brother and son.
Charles V was heir of the House of Habsburgs.
He devoted to Italian Wars against France, he was best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation.
Charles V is also known as a lover of peace.
He oversaw Spanish colonization in the New World.
He became the first king of Spain because he ruled Castile-Leon and Aragon simultaneously.
Queen Maria Antoinette of France
Queen Maria Carolina of Naples
Duchess Maria Amalia of Parma
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II
Citations For The Pictures:
Citations For The Information:
Maria Theresa. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Theresa
Gat, Azar (2006). War in Human Civilization (4. ed.). Oxford (u.a.): Oxford University Press. p. 488. ISBN 978-0-19-923663-3.
James Boyden; Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World
Geoffrey Parker. The Grand Strategy of Philip II, (2000)
Koenigsberger, Helmut Georg (2012), Philip II, Encyclopedia Britannica Online, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/456081/Philip-II, retrieved 31 Janurary 2012
Louis Adrian Montrose, The subject of Elizabeth: authority, gender, and representation, University of Chicago Press, 2006
Pettegree, p. 214.
Encyclopedia of World Biography 2004