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Cognitive Apprenticeship

Cognitive Apprenticeship presentation for IDT 550. University of North Dakota, Fall 2012

stephen beckermann

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Cognitive Apprenticeship

Formal Schooling & the Cognitive Domain
Framework for Designing Learning Environments
1. Learning/task is physically observable

2. Learning is situated

3. Skills are learned in a specific context (are not transferable)
1. Learning/task is internal

2. Learning goals are "detached" from life

3. Skills may be presented in various contexts
3 Key Differences
1. Learning must be "made visible"

2. Instruction must attempt to situate learning in meaningful tasks

3. Construct context(s) which encourage transferability
Resulting Challenge for Cognitive Apprenticeship
Domain knowledge
Heuristic knowledge
Control strategies
Learning strategies
Global before local skills
Increasing complexity
Increasing diversity
Situated learning
Community of practice
Intrinsic Motivation
Lave & Wenger - Situated Learning (Legitimate Peripheral Participation)
Lave - Successive Approximation of Mature Practice
Vygotsky - Zone of Proximal Development
Collins, A., Brown, J. Seely., Newman, S. E. (1987). Cognitive apprenticeship: teaching
the craft of reading, writing, and mathtematics. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for the Study of Reading.
Illustrated by 3 Success Models for Instruction
1. Palincsar & Brown - Reciprocal Teaching of Reading
2. Scardamalia & Bereiter - Procedural Facilitation of Writing
3. Schoenfeld - Method for Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving
Social Context
Cognitive Apprenticeship
Cognitive Apprenticeship
Embedded in subculture
Access to several masters (models of expertise)
Observe other learners
Domain Knowledge:

Conceptual, factual, and/or procedural knowledge.

"Textbook" material
Heuristic Knowledge:

"Tricks of the Trade"
"Rules of Thumb"
e.g. Schoenfeld - Find a solution for simple problems and see if it generalizes

Experts acquire these naturally over time through practice
Control Strategies:

(a.k.a. metacognitive strategies)
How to select a strategy or procedure to follow for solving a problem in it's current state
Learning Strategies:

Extend or re-configure knowledge as needs arise

Learning how to learn

Apprentice observes the master's performance

Master observes the apprenticeship and offers support along the way.

Support provided as needed for the students current skill level. (Vygotsky's zone of proximal development)

Range from physical support to suggestions or cues.

Support fades as skill level increases.

Student externalizes / verbalizes the information, thought, or problem-solving process

Student compares his/her performance to that of a master (or other learners)

Students pursue and solve problems on their own

Occurs as support fades
Adapted from Collins, Brown, & Holum (1991)
Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Thinking Visible
Provide a conceptual model (big picture) before looking at the details
Tasks become more difficult as skills / knowledge develops

Complexity can be controlled & tasks supported (scaffolding) as appropriate to the learner
Develop a variety of strategies & skills and the ability to determine when they best apply
Situated Learning:

1. Learn the purpose of the knowledge
2. Actively apply vs. passively receive
3. Experience different conditions for application
Community of Practice:

Collaborative work

Communication with other learners and/or experts

Discussion of different ways to approach a problem
Intrinsic Motivation:

Motivation stems from interest in a subject or the desire to achieve some sort of "coherent" goal

Working with others to reach a common goal
Global before local:
Increase Complexity:
Increase Diversity:
Backus, C., Keegan, K., Gluck, C., & Gulick, L. V. (2010).
Accelerating Leadership Development via Immersive Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship. International Journal Of Training And Development, 14(2), 144-148.
Success in Business Leadership Training
Liu, M. (1998). A study of engaging high-school students
as multimedia designers in a cognitive apprenticeship-style learning environment. Computers In Human Behavior, 14(3), 387-415. doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(98)00008-9
Success in High School Design Class
Tisdale, K. (2001). Dissention and distress in a cognitive
apprenticeship in reading. Reading Research And Instruction, 41(1), 51-82. doi:10.1080/19388070109558358
Effect of Interpersonal Relationships on Success of C.A.
Dickey, M. D. (2008). Integrating cognitive apprenticeship
methods in a Web-based educational technology course for P-12 teacher education. Computers & Education, 51(2), 506-518. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.017
Web-based P-12 Teacher Education
Case Studies
Origins of Cognitive Apprenticeship
Foundational Theories
Advanced organizer
Conceptual model
Internalized guide
Learning occurs as the apprentice watches others at work.
Support provided by the master as the student attempts to perform a task or process.
Support from the master decreases, increasing the student's responsibility for his/her performance.
Occurs throughout as master oversees learning.

Chooses tasks, provides support, feedback, challenges, etc.
Clarifies expectations prior to students attempt to perform
Provides a reference structure for making sense of the feedback and coaching provided.
To continue support for the student as he/she moves toward independence
A community of learners learning together and supporting one another.

Value of the learning is apparent based on its impact on the community.
Different ways to approach a single challenge or task

Understanding that one individual does not necessarily have all the answers
Different levels or stages of mastery may be observed.

May be used as a reference for the apprentices self evaluation
Framework for Apprenticeships
Adapted from Collins, Brown, & Holum (1991)
Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Thinking Visible
Full transcript