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Selective Breeding in Evolution

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Isabella Terrono

on 5 June 2015

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Transcript of Selective Breeding in Evolution

Believe it or not, selective breeding does not exist just in animals, but also in plants!
Selective Breeding
What is evolution?
Evolution:
A process in which new species develop from preexisting species;a change in the allele frequencies of a population of organisms from generation to generation.
BELIEVE IT OR NOT
In-breeding
Inbreeding is when closely related animals (and even sometimes people... YIKES!) with either very similar or identical DNA patterns reproduce together.


Genome analysis applied in real life
Sheep in New Zealand are being selectively bred through genome analysis in order to prevent facial eczema, which kills off whole flocks of sheep.
A plant related example is the modification of kiwis in order to make them disease resistance, making the crops much more durable.
Genome Analysis
Genome analysis is the process of determining the position of the chromosome and base sequence of all genes in an organism.
All domesticated animals, such as the thousands of variations of dogs are products of selective breeding.
Due to the increase of alleles due to selective breeding, animals involved in selective breeding would never be able to survive on their own in the wild.
Examples of domesticated animals include dogs, camels, donkeys, pigs, horses, and goats to name just a few.
Selective breeding in animals began by choosing wild animals, breeding them to increase desired traits in the chosen animals. Animals bred from selective breeding were created to be the most docile and the most easiest to tame and handle.
Various aspects of selective breeding
Selective Breeding in Animals
Breeding in Evolution
Isabella Terrono
iResearch Project
Topic 5- Evolution
There are many different methods of selective breeding which effect evolution, such as out-crossing breeding, line breeding, in-breeding, etc.
Also known as artificial selection, the process of breeding organisms that results in an offspring with desired genetic traits.
Selective breeding does not effect just farm animals such as fattening chickens, but selective breeding is also found in dogs in order to get pure breeds, and more recently, children.

YES!
Believe it or not, couples are requesting to pick and choose the traits their children will have in order to better their looks and personalities.
"//www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_CnR0Ak604 ... add http: in order for link to play video.
Example of selective breeding in dogs...
Scientists have altered the original, natural form of plants and vegetables in order to create hybrid plants and vegetables. The most common forms of hybrid vegetables that come in varying colors are:
carrots
eggplants
broccoli
potatoes
cabbage
Animals created from selective breeding often live longer and produce more offspring.
Example of domesticated animals in relation to wild animals
Perhaps the best known example of selective breeding in animals is the Belgium Blue cattle, which was created with a mutation in the myostatin gene.
The myostatin gene results in the increased production of muscle fibres, which results in a huge amount of increased meat, raising the prices on each cattle.
http://www.teachertube.com/video/the-super-cow-selective-breeding-286440
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Genome analysis is utilized in selective breeding in order to determine if an individual has a desired allele that would be beneficial.
An example of the scale used in multi-genome analysis

Examples of sheep with facial eczema
There are cons to inbreeding in both humans and animals. There can be mutations in humans and animals if inbreeding occurs, with the addition of brain damage to humans. Small litters or 'runts' occurs in animals, such as puppies and piglets if there is an excess amount of inbreeding going on.


Video explaining inbreeding... https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/evolution-population-dynmaics/v/inbreeding
Cons of Selective breeding
biological implications of evolution of certain populations
loss of variety among plants and animals
increase of disease and chance for mutations
inhumane circumstances for animals being modified
What are the downsides of having a 'perfect pet?'
Add http: to beginning of link.. //www.youtube.com/watch?t=68&v=bi9Pa0DHG5Y&edufilter=Db24N54Eu_vpe4P65Iz5FA&safe=active
Pros of selective breeding

Higher profit and retail sale of animals (like pure bred puppies) and crops, such as corn.
While it can increase disease, selective breeding has been proven to also eliminate disease from certain species
Citations
http://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-selective-breeding/
http://www.slideshare.net/hannahreed/selective-breeding-powerpoint
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/dogs-that-changed-the-world-selective-breeding-problems/1281/
http://wallace.genetics.uga.edu/groups/evol3000/wiki/ce8b9/Selective_Breeding_or_Artificial_Selection.html
http://biologyselectivebreeding.weebly.com/benefits-and-risks.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/genesrev2.shtml
Full transcript