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Copy of Ch. 20 The Roaring 20s
Transcript of Copy of Ch. 20 The Roaring 20s
stock prices rose
factories produced more
wages increased The automobile industry spurred a lot of this growth
Henry Ford-car maker who introduced new ideas that revolutionized manufacturing, jobs, and wages. Mass production-rapid manufacture of a large number of identical products
Model T-mass produced car that many Americans could afford.
Ford hired scientific management experts to help run his factories more efficiently.
scientific management-study in efficiency Cities, Suburbs, and Country A Bustling Economy (Cont.) A Bustling Economy Automobiles (Cont.) Assembly Lines-more efficient way to produce something where each worker has a specific job.
made it easier and cheaper to make cars.
Automobile industry inceases demand for :
road construction Connected with the Growth of Suburbs 1920s saw a consumer revolution or where a flood of new products and affordable goods become available to the public.
People who did not have enough money could buy things on credit
borrowing money from someone with the promise to pay them back later.
Installment Plan-pay off purchase with a set amount each month. Stock market enjoyed a bull market-period of rising stock prices.
People began to buy on margin-purchasing stocks on credit.
The stock market was built on shaky practices and will have dire consequences. Economic boom was good for cities and suburbs, not so good for rural areas.
People flock to cities for employment
Widespread use of automobiles helps develop suburbs
Farmers did not participate in the benefits of the boom economy
Government policies will aide the growth of business... The Roaring 20s The Harding Administration (Cont.) The Harding Administration Harding and the "return to normalcy"
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon
economic policy was to support legislation that advanced business interests.
raised tariffs to protect American businesses
supported a return to "laissez-faire" economic policy
Harding was a friendly guy but lacked the intelligence for his office.
relied on others, usually close friends, to make decsions
The Ohio gang The Ohio Gang were not honest public servants.
The Teapot Dome Scandal:
Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall transfers oil reserves from California to teapot Dome, Wyoming.
leased the oil to private businesses in return for "loans"
Fall served a 1 year prison sentence.
Harding dies of a heart attack on August 2, 1923.
Vice president Calvin Coolidge becomes President. Coolidge Prosperity Coolidge was almost exact opposite of Harding
quiet, honest, and frugal
"Silent Cal" supports big business
reduced the national debt
lowered taxes to give incentives to businesses
American Economy booms
Prosperity hid economic problems:
farmers struggled as prices of their goods dropped
Labor unions demanded better wages and working conditions America's Role in the World U.S. foreign policy shaped by reaction to WWI:
citizens wanted to avoid another war
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference (1921)-world leaders agree to limit construction of large warships
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)- treaty that outlawed war as an instrument of national policy.
Dawes Plan (1924)-arranged U.S. loans to war-torn Germany. Traditionalism vs. Modernism (Cont.) Restricting Immigration The New Ku Klux Klan Prohibition and Crime Prohibition and Crime (Cont.) Traditionalism vs. Modernism 1920s-More Americans lived in Urban areas then rural
first time in country's history
Modernism-growing trend to emphasize science and secular values over traditional ideas.
Rural people still stuck with traditional values
Education becomes more important especially in cities
increasing industrialization called for skills in math and science. Many Americans believed Christianity was under attack around the globe:
rise of atheist Soviet Union
Americans reaffirmed their believes through fundamentalism-which emphasized protestant teachings and believed that every word in the bible was literally true.
Fundamentalism vs. Modernism in the Scopes Trial (1925):
the issue was the theory of evolution and whether it should be taught in American schools
Clarence Darrow a famous defense attorney defended scopes.
Scopes was found to be breaking the law. Americans nativists believed that immigrants were taking jobs away from native-born workers.
The Emergency Quota Act (1921) and National Origins Act 91924) established a quota system to govern immigration from specific countries.
Acts severely restricted immigration from Asia
Quota system did not apply to Mexico and many Mexican immigrants worked in the Southwest harvesting crops. 1915-a group of angry Georgians revived the Ku Klux Klan
group aimed to terrorize the "new America" that had begun to take shape.
targeted Jews, Catholics, immigrants and African Americans.
At its height, the Klan had perhaps as many as 5 million members.
Many Americans opposed the Klan and its values:
NAACP and the Jewish Anti-Defamation League embraced the idea of America as the "melting pot".
Although still around, the Klan has withered in its importance. Prohibition-the banning of the sale and consumption of alcohol
enacted by the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919.
Volstad act officially enforced the amendment.
Opponents argued that the law did not curb drinking and promoted organized crime. Law did not stop drinking as people made their own drinks or smuggled it in from other countries.
Bootleggers sold illegal alcohol to consumers
The rise of the mob and organized crime:
millions of dollars to be made by supplying alcohol illegally
organized crime branched out into prostitution, drugs, robbery, and murder.
The nineteenth amendment (1933) eventually repealed prohibition!!! New Trends in Popular Culture (Cont.) An Age of Heroes Women Assume New Roles Modernism in Art and Literature Modernism in Art and Literature (Cont.) New Trends in Popular Culture Americans begin to enjoy more leisure time:
Movies became popular and Hollywood had its beginnings
Comedian Charlie Chaplin was the most popular Hollywood star.
The Jazz Singer (1927)-was the first movie that was synchronized with sound (talkies) Radio and Phonographs were also popular
Americans listened to music, lectures, sporting events, and religious sermons over the air waves.
Phonograph allowed Americans to listen to music whenever they wanted Hollywood had to compete against sports for consumer's dollars
Thanks to radio and newspapers, every major sport had national heroes
No sporting figure was bigger than Babe Ruth
hopefully no definition is needed...
Airplane pilot Charles Lindbergh became the first pilot to fly across the Atlantic Ocean solo and without stopping. During the 1920s many women challenged political, economic, and social boundaries
The symbol of new woman was the Flapper
a young woman with short skirts and short hair.
Women demanded political, economic, and social equality
Many women married later, had fewer children, and took jobs. WWI's devastation changed the way people thought about life. This was reflected in the arts.
The theories of psychologist Sigmund Freud also contributed to modernism in the arts.
Artists experimented with more abstract ideas in their paintings and sculptures. American writers of the 1920s are often called The "Lost Generation" because they no longer had faith in the old cultural guideposts.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald explored the reality of the American dream of wealth success and emotional fulfillment.
His book "The Great Gatsby" shows the American Dream ending in a nightmare. A New "Black Consciousness" (Cont.) The Jazz Age The Harlem Renaissance A New "Black Consciousness" The migration of African Americans to urban areas contributed to a flowering of music and literature.
many African Americans did find better lives in the north:
greater political power
However they still faced discrimination:
usually worked the worst jobs for the lowest wages
lived in the worst housing areas
New York City's Harlem became the focal point for the aspirations of thousands of African Americans. Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey emerged as the most prominent African American leader in the 1920s.
advocated a separation of the races
Advocated Black pride and black support of black-run businesses.
Influenced and inspired the Black Panthers in the 1960s. Jazz is an indigenous American musical form based on improvisation.
Jazz emerged in the South and Midwest, particularly New Orleans.
Louis Armstrong became a jazz legend and helped promote it.
Jazz showcased the richness of African American Culture and helped bridge the races. Langston Hughes Today We will be talking about American Culture in the 1920s, including Charlie Chaplin Black novelists, poets, and artists celebrated African American culture in what is known as the Harlem Renaissance.
helped give a new dynamic to race relations in the U.S.
Claude McKay-a militant writer who showed African Americans struggle for dignity and respect. The Harlem Renaissance (Cont.) Langston Hughes- prominent African American author who captured the diversity and richness of African American culture.
The Harlem Renaissance gave a voice to African Americans and altered the way whites viewed black culture.