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Washington, Adams, Jefferson
Transcript of Washington, Adams, Jefferson
Assumption of state debts:
With both the French and Britain mad at the US for not coming to their aid, Adams has the difficulty of maintaining Washington's recommended neutrality.
Adams loses reelection.
Jefferson and Aaron Burr tie with 73 votes.
The House eventually elects Jefferson as he promises to look at doing things the Federalist way.
Washington, Adams, Jefferson
I understand and CAN explain the actions of early presidential administrations and how they established a strong federal government.
Jefferson v. Hamilton
The states owed the government 25 million dollars.
Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury): Federal government should take on the debt of the states (Assumption Plan).
This would help build trust with the states.
It would help the national economy (relieve debtor states and help them to continue to grow)
State representatives (mainly southern) disagreed with this plan.
Why should states with little debt have to help pay for states with a lot?
Is it Constitutional for government to adopt state debt?
They reached a
They would move capital from New York to Virginia
Hamilton's state debt plan was approved
Thought the Constitution did not give power for government to create a bank
Necessary and proper clause should be used in special cases
Bank was NOT a necessity in Jefferson's view
Washington agreed with Hamilton
He knew we needed to offer more security for economy
Hamilton was right, the bank helped stabilize our economy
The national bank:
Wanted a national bank so government could safely deposit its money
Bank could make loans to government and businesses
Also wanted to build a national mint (make $)
20 year charter (if it doesn't work, the government can get rid of it
Each state should also have its own bank so the national bank would not become too powerful
Constitutional: Article 1, Section 8 says- Congress has power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper." (Elastic Clause)
The Whiskey Rebellion:
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against a federal taxes on whiskey
Washington and Hamilton marched with 13,000 troops to suppress the rebellion
The episode demonstrated the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws.
This is NOT the same as British taxes. Citizens now have representatives and a government!
During Washington's presidency France and England had gone to war.
However, many believed because France helped the U.S. win the American Revolution, we should side with them (including Jefferson)
Many believed our Treaty of Paris with Britain meant we must keep peace with them.
Washington couldn't allow the U.S. to fall apart over foreign matters and
Washington proclaimed absolute neutrality (would not side with either country).
France v. Britain
French ships started attacking US ships
French said if the U.S. wanted it stop we'd have to pay them (this is a bribe)
This will lead to Adam's creation of the US Navy.
Adams never broke his neutrality promise, which made many very angry with him!
(Most wanted to fight the French)
Election of 1800
Large crowds attended the swearing in of Thomas Jefferson in March, 1801.
John Adams refused to attend.
Dem-Reps had won control of the White House, and Congress.
The first transfer of power from one political party to another in U.S. history was peaceful.
Peaceful transfer of power was rare.
Tried to reassure Federalists that he would run government fairly and called for unity between political parties.
Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans from France for $10 million.
Napoleon Bonaparte offers to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million.
Jefferson feared he did not have the constitutional power to buy Louisiana.
Purchase almost doubled the size of the U.S
ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
Many were upset with President Adams.
Many were saying and writing things against him.
SEDITION ACt made it illegal to speak or write articles against the US government.
To protect against French and British immigrants recruiting for their war,
the ALIEN ACT allowed any foreigner who appeared suspicious to be arrested.