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ASD: Spain and Denmark

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Pablo Becerril Fernández

on 25 May 2016

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Transcript of ASD: Spain and Denmark

The term autism: ‘’autos’’ meaning ‘’self’’ -> indicate the extreme sense of isolation and detachment from the world around
• Traits such as preference for loneliness, an insistence on sameness, and a liking for elaborate routines
• Factor 3. Parental influence
Spain
• - Moreno, Aguilera and Saldaña interviewed 60 parents.
• - Research in three different groups: children in mainstream schools, children in special classes in mainstream schools and children in special schools.

CHILDREN WITH AUTISTIC SPECTRUM
DISORDER IN MAINSTREAM SCHOOLS
-SPAIN AND DENMARK-

AUTISTIC
SPECTRUM
DISORDER

• - Main variable: parental satisfaction.
• - Outcome: parental satisfaction is high.
• - 75% of the parents said that they don’t mind in which setting their child is being educated, as long as the teacher is capable.

• - Rodriguez, Saldaña and Moreno: another research states that parents have a big influence on the education of their child.
•- Researchers created questionnaire for teacher: also questions about the parents.
•- Many Spanish schools have interest in the influence of the parents.

•- We wonder: Do parents of ‘normal’ children have influence on the way a child with ASD is included?
•- Sodian and Frith: deception of children with disabilities is a problem in including these children.
•- Deception can come from teachers, parents and other children.
•- Own experience

- Traits such as preference for loneliness, an insistence on sameness and a liking for elaborate routines.
- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1992): a developmental disability affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three that adversely affects a child’s performance.

- The term autism is a Greek word: ‘’autos’’ meaning ‘’self’’.
- Indicates the extreme sense of isolation and detachment from the world around.
- Dr. Leo Kanner of the Child Psychiatric Unit at Johns Hopkins University in 1943, described and named the term "autism".

- Pupils with ASD are at increased risk of social exclusion.
- Target group: children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder in mainstream primary schools.
- Comparing two countries: Denmark and Spain.


Factor 2. Teacher’s approach
Spain
- Affected by experience, training, perception of available resources and support.
- Special programs can be used, alongside the main program if it's needed.
-Teachers have to be a role model and help the children physically, verbally and using signs while teaching.
-Researchers show that teachers need support and there is a lack of response to that need.
- Frame of reference:
1. National inclusion in Denmark and Spain
2. Teacher’s approach to children with ASD
3. Parental influence
- Chosen research methods:
Desk research and own experience.
Factor 2. Teacher’s approach
Denmark
Recommendations to the teachers :
- Teachers play a huge role.
- National Autism Plan.
- Examples of recommendations to teachers:
- Make the lessons predictable.
- Avoid sarcasm.
- Teach through visualization.


What is the real situation?
- Are the children with ASD being included?
- Autism Association in Denmark:
- The number of children with ASD who do not attend school is increasing.
- Danish Union of Teachers:
- Teachers have no extra time for pupils with ASD.
- Longer schooldays mean less teachers per class.

Factor 1. National inclusion
Denmark
- Laws and guidelines.
- The child's abilities, parental resources and pedagogical-psychological assessments.
- Different options:
-Extra support in a normal school
-Special classes
-Special schools
- Handicapped child relief and care homes.
- Social acceptance and tolerance.
Similarities
- Policies, laws, guidelines
- Different options; mainstream schools and special schools
- Specialized pedagogues
- Wish to include children with ASD in mainstream schools
Similarities
- Both countries want their teachers to have enough skills and knowledge.
-Recommendations regarding the teachers approach is quite similar.
-Challenging, lack of support.
-Test before school starts.
-Individual plan.
Differences
- Denmark: main problem is not enough time to adapt curriculum to children with ASD. Spain: main problem is that teachers don’t feel enough supported.
- Denmark: all the schools have kind of the same support network. Spain: schools with and without support. There is no guarantee of having a network in Spain, there is in Denmark.
Parental
Influence
Similarities
- Both countries: parental associations who advocate for the well-being of children with ASD.
- We think there might be similarity in the way other kids’ parents think about the inclusion of children with ASD.
Differences
- Spain: 75% of the parents don’t mind in which school their child get educated. Denmark: parents are less satisfied and because of that some parents keep their child at home.
- Denmark: a lot of parents are worried to let their child go to school. Spain: faith in teachers and the education system is higher so parents are less worried.
Differences
- Danish system: find the right school for children before they go to school. Spain: every child goes to mainstream pre-primary school.
- Spain: there is a strong feeling about the right of inclusion from pre-primary education on (Pygmalion-effect). In Denmark the choice of education depends on more factors, like severity of the disorder or the other children in the classroom.
Factor 3. Parental influence
Denmark
- More parents keep their children at home because they feel the mainstream schools are not meeting their needs.
-National Center for Social Research: some children with ASD enrolled in mainstream school don't go to school hence the worry of parents.

- Survey of NCS : the reactions and demands of 30 out of 160 parents show a negative signal towards the ill-treatment of children with ASD in mainstream schools.
- No recent prevalence studies from Denmark about autism.
- Researchers conclude that autism occurs within 0.6% of the population which is a very big blow and a displeasure for parents.
Factor 1. National inclusion
Spain
- Diagnosis of ASD at 3: the observation of teachers and pedagogues.
- Teachers are trained to be able to work properly with children with special needs in class.
- ASD children stay in mainstream classes at least until the first year of primary education.
- The benefits of inclusion for children with special needs in the mainstream classes are well known (Pygmalion Effect).

- If a child stays in mainstream education depends on the cognitive level and on the severity of ASD.
- Spanish teachers need, despite their education, help from pedagogues to include the children with ASD in classrooms.
- Due to the low financial budget of education in Spain, the schools can't afford special pedagogues.
- In the end it might be necessary for the child to look for a special education school. Public schools or privates are both, especially the private ones, too expensive for many families.
Conclusion
- Factors that bedevil inclusion globally:
• Teacher resistance
• Parental attitude
• Financial problems
• Inadequate infrastructure
• Stigmatization
- There are policies and laws that propagate the inclusion, but also factors that militate against it.
- Successful inclusion: reinforcement of policies and laws, advocacy, empowerment and change in attitude of the general public to combat exclusion by minimizing or eliminating stigmatization and marginalization.
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Comin, D. (2015). La inclusión social y educativa en los Trastornos del Espectro del Autismo. Retrieved on 28/09/2015 from http://autismodiario.org/2012/09/09/la-inclusion-social-y-educativa-en-los-trastornos-del-espectro-del-autismo/

DCUM (2009). Act on the Educational Environment of Pupils and Students. Retrieved on 29/09/2015 from http://dcum.dk/act-educational-environment-pupils-and-students

DCUM (2009). About the Danish Centre of Educational Environment. Retrieved on 29/09/2015 from http://dcum.dk/about-danish-centre-educational-environment-dcum

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Moreno, F.J., Aguilera, A. & Saldaña, D. (2008). Do Spanish Parents Prefer Special Schools for Their Children with Autism? Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 43 (2), pp. 162-173. Retrieved on 28/09/2015 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23879927?seq=12#page_scan_tab_contents

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Rodríguez, I.S., Saldaña, D. & Moreno, F.J. (2011). Support, Inclusion, and Special Education Teachers’ Attitudes toward the Education of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Research and Treatment. Retrieved on 27/09/2015 from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2012/259468/

Sodian, B. & Frith, U. (1992). Deception and Sabotage in Autistic, Retarded and Normal Children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 33 (3), pp. 591-605. Retrieved on 28/09/2015 from http://www.icn.ucl.ac.uk/dev_group/ufrith/documents/Sodian%20and%20Frith,%20Deception%20and%20sabotage%20in%20autistic,%20retarded%20and%20normal%20children%20copy.pdf

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