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Fall of Constantinople 1453

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Anouk Schaapveld

on 3 February 2016

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Transcript of Fall of Constantinople 1453

Renaissance, discoveries, reformation
- Christopher Columbus 1492 (he never realized he found a new continent)
- Amerigo Vespucci 1598: sailed along the cost of south America.
Discovery of America
Bartolomeus Diaz, tried to find a new trading route to Asia 1488
-> European traders need to find new routes to the East to get their products.
-> People from Constantinople flew to Italy and they come with the knowledge and the ancient texts.
=> New routes -> voyages of discovery
=> ancient texts and knowledge -> Rediscovery of the Greeks and the Romans (art, philosophy, sciences, bible)
The city of
Constantinople
was:
- A
trading city
, very important for the trade between Asia en Europe -> Spices and silk.
- An
ancient city
, with roots in antiquity
-> ancient greek, roman and egyptian texts
-> center of knowledge (arabic, greek, roman, egyptian)
=> Turks take over the city, taxes on trade are raised, people flew for the new power.
Fall of Constantinople 1453
Renaissance:

- Starts in Italy and then "grows" in Europe.
Art:
-> Inspiration from the greeks and romans: architecture, paintings, stories (mythology), statues
Sciences:
-> Earth goes around the sun (opposite of what the church taught in the Dark Ages).
-> The earth is round like a ball and not a pancake.
Thinkers:
->
Humanists
use the ancient ideas of the greeks to see the world in a different way: Carpe Diem, live in the now instead of Memento Mori (live for the afterlife).
-> the individual is as important as the group (the Church was more fixed on the group.
-> translating the ancient bible, they find a lot of mistakes in the bible that the Church uses.
Vasco da Gama, arrives in India = Portugal gets spices again 1498
Ferdinand Magellan 1517-1521 goes around the world = important influence in sciences:
- the earth is round as a ball
- looks of the continents for the drawing of maps.
Conquistadors
Spanish conquistadors: Cortes and Pizarro ("famous"for their use of violence)
-> killing a lot of indigenous people: with guns (violence) but also with the sickness (the cold, smallpox).
-> end of the empires of the Maya's, Azteka's and Inca's.
-> search for gold : El Dorado
Martin Luther: 1483-1546

Lived in Wittenberg (Germany)
He was a priest and studied theology
He had not the intention to begin
a new religion, he wanted to change
the path of the church.

Luther went to Rome in 1517:
He saw this:
- The Churches were richly decorated (but the Romans are poor)
- Selling of Indulgence: paying for your piece of heaven
-Paying for all your sins
- People selling relics
- People Selling small statues of saints for all kinds of remedies
- Monks and priest didn’t follow the rules of the church and weren’t well educated
Pope was too rich and more interested in war and his lands than being the vicar of Christ
People had to listen to the Church and were not allow to read the Bible themselves

Luther has to defend himself in Worms in front of Charles V the Emperor of the Holy Empire and the Church.

Luther uses a lot of arguments from the Bible, and gives himself a good defence. He knows more then the priests against him.
But Luther is not pardonned and excommunicated by the Pope (he is not allowed in heaven).


Back in Wittenberg, Luther writes 95 remarks on the Catholic Church. He nails them on the church door.
of course the Catholic Church isn't happy with this attack.
After his excommunication:
- Translation of the Bible in German (1st time in a languages that is not Latin or Greek)
- He converts people to his ideas of reformation of the Catholic Church.
Prinses gave up their collection of relics.
- Luther marries and has children (leaves the church as priest).
=> birth of the Lutheranism (no saints, no statues and art in the church, no priets, bible, readings and sermons no more in latin.

Luther inspired others to rethink the ideas of the Catholic Church. Calvin and Zwingli (in Switserland) and Henry VIII king of England.

Zwingli and Calvin, originally from Switserland are inspired by the ideas of reformation from Luther and take the critism on the Catholic Church to a next level.

Calvin becomes very popular in the north of Europa: Scandinavia and the Low Countries (Holland).
Zwingli was important in Switserland and Italy but did not start his own church.
King Henry VIII
wanted to divorce his first wife to marry Anne Boleyn but the pope would not grant him a divorce.
- The King decide with the help of protestant adviser to separate England from the Catholic Church and the king founded the Anglican Church (with him as the head of the Church).
- The Anglican stayed in their way very Catholic (but without the faith in the pope).
Calvinism found a lot of followers in the Low Countries.
- The Low Countries used to belong to the Holy Empire but Charles V give the countries to his son Philip II the king of Spain. This turned the Low Countries in a Spanish province.
Spain was very Catholic -> in protest the Low Countries turned protestants (Calvinistical).
BREAKING WITH SPAIN
Union of Utrecht
: 23 January 1579
- Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overijssel, Gelderland, Friesland, Groningen => work together against Spain.
- "act of abjuration" from Spain: Philip II is no longer king of the 7 provinces.
Plakkaat van Verlatinghe
july 1582
- Republic of the Seven United Provinces (they stay self- governed but they do army and forreign affairs together: States General).

Organisation of the Dutch republic
States- General:
- Representatifs of the regional states
- Main positions:
raadpensionaris/landsadvocaat: the most important representatif of Holland.
stadhouder: commander in chief of the army (belonging to the family of Oranje)
Start Beeldenstorm Iconoclasm
April 5th 1566.
- No action of Margaret after the Compromise
- After a protestant serment in Steenvoorde (close by Gent), people broke into the monastery.
- Spread through the low countries. Pillage of catholic churches. Statues and arts are destroyed.
- Town guards did not always try stop the iconoclasm.
=> reaction from Spain: send the Duke of Alva with soldiers to crush the revolts.

Margareth of Parma regent of Philip king of Spain.
- followed the law of Philip
- april 5 1566: 200 nobles give her a petition
Compromise:
stop the inquisition and work together with the States General.
- she did nothing with this petition.
- she called the nobles Geux- Geuzen
Philip king of Spain and the Low Countries:
- Spanish army in the Low Countries
- Inquisition (Low Countries were turning protestant)
- Taxes went up all the time
- Philip is advised by spanish nobles instead of Dutch nobles.
=> The Low Countries were not happy with his rule

The
Geuzen
: "Ce ne sont que des gueus" (they are only beggars).
(One of the spanish noblemen of Margaret of Parma said that to her when she got scared during the presentation of the Compromise).

Prins William of Orange.

- He was cityholder/ stadhouder during the reign of Charles V (father of Philip II).
- Born protestant but rised Catholic at the court of Charles V.
- Wants freedom of religions in the Dutch provinces.
- Wants to have more power, specially advising Philips on how to rule the Netherlands.
=> He is one of the first to fight the Spanish.
=> His followers want him to become king.

The duke of Alva

- Send by Philip II to stop the Iconoclasm
- He is a great military commander.
- Councils of Troubles -> find the ones who started the Iconoclasm "Councils of Blood"
(10.000 people arrested, 1.000 executed)
- Install new taxes to pay for his large army (10% on the sale of goods -> Tenth Penny).
- Alva started a war against the nobles and the geuzen. Cities in the Low Countries were changing hands (Haarlem, Naarden, Leiden, Den Briel).
- Nickname: The Iron Duke.

War:
April 1st 1572, the geuzen take Den Briel (a very small town). In July William of Orange comes from Germany with a army to fight the armies of Alva.
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