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Integumentary Diseases and Disorders
Transcript of Integumentary Diseases and Disorders
and Karime Bolivar The Integumentary System's Diseases and Disorders Irratation by External Sources One's body mistakes latex for a harmful substance. antihistamines, epinephrine pens, oxygen, and corticosteroids Causes Signs &
Symptoms Itchy, red skin or other rashes
sneezing/coughing, difficulty breathing, dizziness, confusion, loss of consciousness, and rapid or weak pulse. Latex Allergy Treatments and Medications anti-itch creams and pain relievers Causes Signs and symptoms Treatments redness, itching, pain, small bumps that turn into raised patches, blisters, bleeding, hives (cc) photo by twicepix on Flickr (cc) photo by tudor on Flickr Polymorphic light eruption Certain medications and heredity AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES Erythrodermic
psoriasis can cover nearly the entire body with a red, peeling rash that can itch or burn intensely. This rash is dangerous to humans and treatment is necessary immediately. In order to prevent extra irritation, the skin must be kept moist-use thick moisturizers after bathing to keep moisture in and soften the skin- as well as when it is sunny outside, make sure to carefully increase your amount of time in the sun-this may prevent or diminish the eruptions. Although a person should take care to avoid sunburns because they can occasionally trigger eruptions (Livestrong).
Even though this type of psoriasis goes away in a few weeks without treatment, moisturizers may be sufficient to take care of the skin but depending on the severity of the outbreak, a person might need a different choice of treatment such as antibiotics or phototherapy (short course of artificial light therapy.) A patient may be treated with:
Cortisone (anti-itch and anti-inflammatory) cream
Dandruff shampoos (over-the-counter or prescription)
Lotions that contain coal tar
Prescription medicines containing vitamin D or vitamin A (retinoids)
Sometimes, however, it may become a chronic (lifelong) condition, or worsen to the more common plaque-type psoriasis (Mayoclinic.com). PSORIASIS PLAQUE
PSORIASIS (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Most widespread form of psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis is a lifelong disease. Usually, it appears as red lesions on the body that are raised higher than the normal skin level and are inflamed (Mayoclinic.com). These lesions are covered by silvery scales known as plaque and these patches can appear anywhere in the body (most commonly found on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back). A person might experience burning, soreness, swollen, stiff joints, and even thickened or ridged nails. And this type of psoriasis can be caused by emotional stress, an injury to the skin, some types of infections, and reactions to certain drugs (Enbrel.com). Most of the treatments aim to interrupt the cycle that causes:
An increased production of skin cells (reducing inflammation and plaque formation)
Smoothing the skin
Corticosteroid medications-including cortisone, hydrocortisone and prednisone- some pills and creams like prednisone can actually cause side effects
If you have mild to moderate plaque psoriasis, creams and ointments can treat you skin effectively.
Severe plaque psoriasis can be treated with creams combined with oral medication or light therapy. Sources:
Enbrel.com Guttate is form of psoriasis that can
start in childhood
or when you are
a young adult. Guttate psoriasis can appear as small, almost water-droplet-shaped sores on your arms, legs, scalp, and even your chest and abdomen. A person may notice that they have small, salmon-pink (or red) drops usually appear suddenly on the skin. These drop-like lesions usually itch and nails (pits and ridges) may change or become absent. These sores are usually covered by a fine scale (Psoriasis.org.) There are many causes for this type of psoriasis such as: upper respiratory infections, strep throat, tonsillitis, stress, viral infections (chickenpox), injury to the skin or even the administration of certain drugs like antimalaria drugs (Mayo Clinic). Inverse psoriasis is a type of psoriasis that appears in relatively smooth, shiny lesions that are red, but these lesions can crack and develop in the creases of the skin which can cause bleeding. Inverse psoriasis is found in the armpits, groin, under the breasts, in the skin folds around the genitals, and between the buttocks. Due to the areas inverse psoriasis is found in, these areas are often subject to irritaton from rubbing and sweating (healthline).
One cause of inverse psoriasis may be yeast overgrowth, as well as high sensitivity to friction and/or sweating. The skin lesions are further intensified by the sweat and skin rubbing together in the skin folds (everydayhealth). Many times inverse psoriasis is mistaken for a fungal infection, but because of its location in the body, it can lead to yeast or fungal infections, irritation, and discomfort in areas where the lesions are located (psoriasisrx). Inverse Psoriasis can be treated with corticosteroid creams and ointments, calcipotriene (a synthetic vitamin D compound), pimecrolimus (Elidel) cream, tacrolimus (protopic) ointment, and ultraviolet light therapy.) Pustular Psoriasis is characterized by white pustules (blisters of noninfectious pus) surrounded by red skin and is usually seen in adults. Pustular psoriasis is primarily seen in adults. Symptoms include headaches, fevers, chills, joint pain, a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, decreased appetite, and nausea (healthline).
This type of psoriasis can appear in the anal and genital areas and bends and folds in your skin, as well as in the face and the tongue-making it difficult to swallow. They can also occur under your nails and cause your nails to come off. Treatments include bed rest, adequate fluid intake, bland compresses applied to the skin, saline solutions, topical therapy (drugs used on the skin), and systemic therapy (drugs taken into the body). Source:
Healthline.com This rash can be caused by an inappropriate or excessive use of corticosteroids, abruptly quitting a systemic medication prescribed to treat psoriasis, an allergic rash caused by a medication allergy, as a result of a skin injury, severe sunburn, emotional stress, and alcoholism (Mayoclinic). Usually occurs in people who already have chronic plaque psoriasis, particularly if it is unstable. However, it also can appear as a person's first-ever psoriasis outbreak, even in children. Erythrodermic psoriasis may develop gradually or occur suddenly and without warning.
Symptoms include congestive heart failure, swelling caused by excess fluid retention, protein and fluid loss caused by the rapid shedding of large amounts of skin and lack of control over body temperature, and bacterial or viral infection resulting from the inflamed skin (Psoriasisrx). Doctors often will treat the skin inflammation with: topical steroids, moisturizers, light therapy, and systemic medications. Also, pain medication or anti-itch drugs to soothe itchy skin, anxiety, or sleeplessness. Many doctors use anti-inflammatory medicines called corticosteroids and drugs that suppress the immune system to treat this disease. Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a muscle disease characterized by inflammation and a skin rash. It is a type of inflammatory myopathy (mda.org). A person with this type of disease may have difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, stiffness, or soreness, shortness of breath, purple or violet colored upper eyelids, or may have a purple-red skin rash appearing over the face, knuckles, neck, shoulders, upper chest, and back (dermnetnz.org). The cause for this illness is unknown, but many scientists believe it may be caused by a viral infection of the muscles or a problem with the body's immune system. PIGMENTATION DISORDERS Vitiligoa Vitiligoa is a condition in which the skin loses its melanin (the pigment that determines the color of your skin, hair, etc.).
Basically, what happens is that the cells that produce this melanin (melanocytes), die or can no longer perform their function causing slowly enlarging white patches of shapes to appear on the skin (Kidshealth.org).
A patient may experience :
Pigment loss that produces milky-white patches (depigmentation) on the skin
Premature whitening or graying of the hair on your scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows or beard
Loss of color in the tissues that line the inside of your mouth (mucous membranes)
Loss of or change in color of the inner layer of your eye (retina).
Although this illness can develop usually on sun-exposed areas of your skin (hands, feet, arms, face and lips) the genital region can only be affected (emedicine.medscape.com).
There are three categories that vitiligoa is separated into:
Generalized- Most common subtype in which pigment loss is widespread across many parts of your body, often symmetrically.
Segmental- Loss of skin color occurs on only one side of your body. This type tends to occur at a younger age, progress for a year or two, then stops.
Focal- Depigmentation is limited to one or a few areas of your body.
There are several different treatments for patients with vitiligoa such as: using sunscreen and applying cosmetic camouflage cream, corticosteroids may help return color to your skin (repigmentation), particularly if the medication is started early in the disease, topical ointments containing tacrolimus or pimecrolimus are effective for people with small areas of depigmentation, photochemotherapy, oral psoralen about two hours before exposure to UVA light, autologous skin grafts, blister grafting, and tattooing implants pigment (WebMd.com). Lichen simplex chronicus Lichen simplex chronicus (Neurodermatitis) is a skin disorder that often leads to chronic itching and scratching. Usually, the constant scratching from the individual causes the skin to thicken and become leathery/brownish (Mayoclinic.com).
A person with this disorder may experience:
Itching of the skin (can be long-term (chronic), intense, and may increase due to nervous tension or stress)
Skin lesion, patch, or plaque (commonly located on the ankle, wrist, neck, rectum/anal area, forearms, thighs, lower leg, back of the knee, inner elbow)
Darkened (hyperpigmented) or reddened skin
Distinct borders to the lesion Cancer of the Skin People who have eczema (atopic dermatitis), psoriasis, and/or suffer from nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other psychologic disorders are especially prone to this disorder. It is common in children, who cannot stop scratching insect bites and other itchy skin conditions. It can also be common in children who have chronic repetitive movements (dermatology.com). Signs: a visible growth on the skin. Rarely, pain and itching may be a determining factor. Caused by an overexposure to UVA rays. Some treatments include electrodesiccation and curettage (ED&C), excision, freezing, and Mohs surgery. For surface only cases, creams such as Aldara and 5-fluorouracil can be used. Basal cell carcinoma Signs include a firm red nodule, a flat lesion with a scaly crust, a raised area on a pre-existing scar, a flat, or a white patch inside the mouth. Caused by overexposure to UV rays. Treatments and medications to alleviate symptoms: Excision, Mohs surgery, laser therapy, freezing, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Sources:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/driki/82703488/ (baby’s skin)