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The Strange Case of

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June Lee

on 4 April 2014

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Transcript of The Strange Case of

1. What does
Jekyll/Hyde's split
identity suggest about
selfhood in the late-Victorian era? How does this model connect to ideas about
evolution and human being's descent from
animal forms?
The Strange Case of
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Victorian Convention

Sexual restraint
Outward appearance of dignity
Strict social code of conduct
Low tolerance of crime
2. Is Dr.Jekyll and
Mr. Hyde a story about
the dangers of repression?
What does it tell us about
Victorian convention
and the double life?
It wasn’t like a man; it was
like some damned


He was perfectly cool and made no resistance, but gave me one look,
so ugly that it brought out the sweat on me like running
. (p.1679)

He was small and very plainly dressed.

The man seems hardly a human

, shall
we say? (p.1685)
3. What does
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
tell us about evil?
Where does pleasure fit in here? Does the indulgence of pleasures automatically lead
to evil, or is evil inherent
in all human beings?
4. How does Dr. Jekyll
and Mr. Hyde define male
society? What role do secrets
play? Is there a male code of
honor here? Why does Utterson
say that he "incline to
Cain's heresy"?
Thank you

00121201 Joyce Lu
00121206 Anya Hsu
00121213 Lillian Lin
00121214 Ivy Lee
00121218 Eva Huang
00121258 Claire Huang
00121259 Grace Sui
00121231 June Lee
5. Is this a stable society?
Is it a patriarchal society? How effective are the police?
How effective are fathers?
6. Using Freud's model
of the id, ego, superego, discuss the character of Jekyll/Hyde.
7. In his "Full Statement
of the Case," Jekyll states that "Jekyll had more than a father's interest; Hyde had more than a
son's indifference." Is Dr. Jekyll
and Mr. Hyde a story of
unresolved Oedipal rage?
8. Compare Dr. Jekyll
and Mr. Hyde with Mary Shelly's Frankenstein.
In what way are both stories about psychological doubles? How are the stories different?
Every time he looked
at my prisoner, I saw that
turn sick and white
with the desire to kill him

I knew that was in his mind, just as
he knew what was in my mind;
and killing being out of the question
we did the next best.
We were keeping
the women off him as best we could,
for they were as wild as harpies. I never saw a circle of such hateful faces.
1. Dual nature exists in all human beings.
We are all "Jekylls," who
desperately tries to keep
our "Hydes" under control.
But he had an
approve tolerance for others; sometimes wondering, almost with envy,
at the high pressure
of spirits involved in
their misdeeds.
2. Dr. Jekyll finds pleasure when he is in Mr. Hyde’s form.
I knew myself, at the
first breath of this new life, to
be wicked, tenfold more wicked,
sold a slave to my original evil;
and the thought, in that moment, braced and delighted me
like wine
Men have before
hired bravos to transact their
crimes, while their own person and reputation sat under shelter. I was the first that could thus plod in the public eyes with a load of genial responsibility, and in a moment,
like a school boy, strip off these lendings and spring headlong into the sea
of liberty
This familiar that
I called out of my own soul,
sent forth alone to do his own pleasure with bestial avidity from any degree of torture to another; relentless like a man of stone
Male society
• Social expectations
• Importance of appearance
• Moral standards
• Responsibility to maintain “justice”.

Upper class values
of Victorian age

• They believed that they were born to rule through divine right and they wanted this right to continue.
• It was the elite's duty to take care of society.
• Responsibility to maintain “justice”.

Upper class society

A fortnight later,
by excellent
good fortune
, the doctor gave one of
his pleasant dinners to some five or six old cronies,
all intelligent, reputable men
and all judges of good wine… (p.1686)

Again, in the course of my life, which had been, after all, nine-tenths a life
effort, virtue and control
, it had
been much less exercised and
much less exhausted.
(p. 1711)

Henry Jekyll—
A large, well-made, smooth-faced
man of fifty, with something of a slyish
cast perhaps, but every mark of capacity and kindness…(p. 1686)

Edward Hyde—
There is something wrong with his appearance; something displeasing, something downright detestable.

The Carew Murder Case

In describing Carew—
• And as she so sat she became aware
an aged and beautiful gentleman
white hair, drawing near along the lane… (p.1688)
• The moon shone on his face as he spoke,
the girl was pleased to watch it
, it
seemed to breathe such an innocent and
old-world kindness of disposition
, yet
with something high too, as of a
well-founded self-content.
In describing Hyde—
• Presently her eye wandered to the
other, as she was surprised to recognize
in him as a certain
Mr. Hyde
, who had
once visited her master and for whom
she had conceived
. (p.1688)

It appears that people would judge one’s good or bad by one’s appearance.

Secret reveals →→→Unacceptable
by social standards (Dr. Lanyon)
→→→The death of Dr. Lanyon
Male code of honor

• The struggle to have pleasure or not.

• A code of honor is a systematic set of rules or laws that a man lives by.

• To maintain “justice”.
This document had long been
the lawyer’s eyesore
. It offended him
both as a lawyer and as a lover of the sane and customary sides of life, to whom the fanciful was the immodest.
“This master Hyde, if he were
studied,” thought he, “must have
secrets of his own;
black secrets, by the
look of him
; secrets compared to which poor Jekyll’s worst would be like sunshine. Things cannot continue as they are.
It turns me cold to think of this creature stealing like a thief to Harry’s bedside
; poor Harry, what a wakening! And the danger of it; for if this Hyde suspects
the existence of the will, he may grow
impatient to inherit. Ay, I must put my
shoulder to the wheel.
“I incline to Cain’s heresy.”

And indeed the worst of
my faults was a certain impatient
gaiety of disposition, such as has
made the happiness of many, but such
I found it hard to reconcile with my imperious desire to carry my head
high, and wear a more than commonly
grave countenance before public
In this case, I was
driven to reflect deeply and inveterately on that
hard law
of life, which lies at the root of religion and is one of the most plentiful springs of distress.
It was on the
moral side, and in my own
person, that
I learn to recognize
the thorough and primitive duality of man
; …
I was radically both
; …
If each, I told myself, could but be housed in separated identities,
life would be relieved of all
that was unbearable
The id is part of the
personality structure that contains
a human's basic, instinctual drives.

from birth
sexual or aggressive drives
libido-source of instinctual force that is unresponsive to the
demands of reality.
pleasure principle-avoid
pain or unpleasure.


reality principle
it seeks to please the id's drive
in realistic ways that will benefit
in the long term rather than
bring grief.
mediate between id and reality


cultural rules
Life and death instinct
Life instinct-id
Death instinct-superego

...had it not been for
his fear of death, he would
long ago have ruined himself in
order to involve me in the ruin. But
his love of life is wonderful… (p.1719)  
→→→life instinct

Here then, as I lay down the pen and processed to seal up my confession,
I bring the life of that unhappy
Henry Jekyll to an end. (p.1719)
→→→death instinct

Psychological doubles

• The Double or Doppelganger
(German for “double-goer”)
• A second self(F) or alternate identity,
sometimes a physical twin.
• A comparison or
contrast between two characters

or sets of characters
within a work to represent
opposing forces in human nature

Double characters are often paired in common relationships
such as twins, siblings, husband/wife, parent/child, hero/villain,
, etc. (F)
• The double-walkers in Gothic fiction,
having lost the unity of soul and body,
must wander in atonement for
their Faustian sins.
(D and F)
The Role of “Secrets”

• Keeping secrets is an act of repressing one’s true personality.

• The deed of keeping secrets occurs
in everyone, and thus the danger of breaking down because of repression was easily happened among

The Strange Case of
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Dr. Jekyll

Good / rational,
intellectual self
Mr. Hyde

Evil / the irrational,
bestial self
Why are they doubles?

1. The same person who shares same memory.
2. A contrast between two characters to represent opposing forces in human nature.

Why are they doubles?
1. Creator/ creature= father/son
(Double characters are often paired in
common relationships, like creator/creature.)
2. Resentment and negligence toward
3. Feeling incredibly lonely and isolated by
loves ones/family. Frankenstein: "I was
now alone." The monster: "Am I not
alone, miserably alone?"
4. Same actions:
seeking revenge.
Mr. Hyde had
disappeared out of the ken
of the police as though he had never existed.  (p.1693)

The powers of Hyde seemed
to have grown with the
sickliness of Jekyll.
Industrial Revolution
Middle Class, Increasing Number of Workers
Vertical Mobility
Widening Gap between the Rich and the Poor
Two Sides of London City

Respectable and Clean

Dirty and Abandoned
Even on Sunday, when it veiled
its more florid charms and lay
comparatively empty of passage,

the street shone out in contrast to its dingy neighborhood
, like a fire in the forest…

Two doors from one corner, on the left hand
going east,
the line was broken by the entry
of a court; and just at the point, a certain
sinister block of building thrust
toward its gable on the street
Is this a patriarchal society?

Men :

Better Occupations (Doctor, lawyer,
Member of Parliament, butler)

Orders and Decision Makers
…we did the next best.
We told the man we would
make such a scandal out of this
, as
should make his name stink from one
end of London to the other. (p.1679)

“Well, sir, every day, ay, and twice and thrice in the same day,
there been
orders and complaints, and I have
been sent flying to all the
wholesales chemists in town
Women :

No names (The child, women,
the maid, the housemaid, the cook)

Lower Occupations

Vulnerable Images
…so that the shop fronts
stood along that thoroughfare
with an air of invitation,
like rows
of smiling saleswomen
Blank silence followed, no one
only the maid lifted up her voice and now wept loudly

Weeping like a woman
or a lost
of soul,” said the butler.
How effective are the police?

• …and my way lay through a part of
where there was literally nothing to be
seen but lamps
… till at last I got into that state
of mind when a man listens and listens and
begins to long for the sight of a policeman
• He would be aware of the great field of lamps of a nocturnal city; then of the figure of a man walking
swiftly; then of a child running from the doctor’s;
and then these met, and that human Juggernaut
trod the child down and passed on the
regardless of her screams.(p.1682)
• “
We have nothing to do but wait for him
at bank, and get out the handbills
How effective are the fathers?

• “I think there’s been a foul play,” said
Poole, hoarsely. “Foul play!” cried the lawyer,
a good deal frightened and rather inclined to be
irritated in consequence. “What foul play? What does
the man mean?” “I daren’t say, sir,” was the answer;
“but will you come along with me and see for yourself?”
• At the sight of Mr. Utterson, the housemaid broke into hysterical whimpering; and the cook, crying out
“Bless God! It’s Mr. Utterson,” ran forward as if to
take him on her arms.  (p.1697)
• Blank silence followed, no one protesting; only
the maid lifted up her voice and now wept
loudly. “Hold your tongue!” Poole said to
her, with a ferocity of accent…

"Well, but since we have
touched upon this business, and for
the last time I hope," continued the doctor,
"there is one point I should like you to understand.
I have really a very great interest in poor Hyde
I know you have seen him; he told me so; and I fear
he was rude. But,
I do sincerely take a great, a very
great interest in that young man
; and if I am taken away, Utterson,
I wish you to promise me that you will bear
with him and get his rights for him
. I think you would,
if you knew all; and it would be a weight off my mind
if you would promise." "I can't pretend that I shall
ever like him," said the lawyer."I don't ask that,"
pleaded Jekyll, laying his hand upon the other's
arm; "I only ask for justice;
I only ask you to
help him for my sake, when I am
no longer here
Oedipus complex

The unresolved desire of a child
for sexual gratification through the
parent of the opposite sex, especially the
desire of a son for his mother. This involves,
identification with
and, later,

hatred for
the parent of the same sex
, who is considered 
by the child as a rival.
In psychoanalytic theory, the term Oedipus
complex denotes the emotions and ideas that
the mind keeps in the unconscious, via
that concentrates
upon a child's desire to sexually
possess the parent of
the opposite sex.
The repression and the growth
of Hyde’s hatred for Jekyll

At first, Hyde had
no controlling
over himself. (Dr. Jekyll could compound and choose when to swallow
the potions to transform into Hyde.)
Jekyll enjoys in the disguise of Hyde
and shares the secret pleasures with
Hyde but has
no responsibility
for public opinion
On the other side,
I announced to my servants that a
Mr. Hyde (whom I described) was to have
full liberty and power about my house in
the square; and to parry mishaps, I even called
and made myself a familiar object, in my second character. I next drew up that will to which you
so much objected; so that
if anything befell me
in the person of Dr. Jekyll, I could enter on that
of Edward Hyde
without pecuniary loss

And thus fortified, as I supposed, on every
side, I began to profit by the strange
immunities of my position.
Men have before hired bravos to
transact their crimes, while their own person and reputation sat under shelter
. (p.1712)

It was Hyde
, after all, and Hyde alone,
that was guilty
The consequences
of the father’s indulgence

*the evil side becomes much stronger
and destroys the balance of his soul.

Nor can I truly say that I wearied of this beneficent and innocent life; I think instead that I daily enjoyed it more completely; but I was still cursed with my duality of purpose; and as the first edge of my penitence wore off,
the lower side of me, so long indulged,
so recently chained down, began to
growl for license
*Hyde’s desire of replacing and
destroying his father (Jekyll)

: Hence the ape-like tricks that he
would play me, scrawling in my own hand blasphemies on the pages of my books, burning the letters and destroying the portrait of my father; and indeed, had it not been for his
fear of death,
he would long ago have
ruined himself in order to involve me
in the ruin
. (p.1719)
The story of Oedipus
in Greek Mythology

- Oedipus was the son of a king
was abandoned
as an infant and raised in a foreign land. Later as a man, Oedipus returns to the place of his birth and unknowingly
kills his father the King in a duel then later
marries his mother, the Queen. When
Oedipus discovers who he is and what he
has done, he cuts out his eyes blinding
himself in an expression of
overwhelming guilt.
The story of The Strange Case of
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

→→ Jekyll chooses to be Dr. Jekyll (father),
and want to get rid of Hyde (son).
it’s a story of
unresolved Oedipal rage.
Dr. Jekyll:

gentle, man of moral,
kind, conscientious

Mr. Hyde:

dark, evil, cruel

Late-Victorian era:
suppressive, conservative
and strict in moral

1. Society’s evolution: industrialization

2. Human’s evolution:
Animal forms→Human beings
Animal form to human being

• Animal form: Mr. Hyde
Ex: animalistic, hairy (p.1713)
short, little man (p.1678)
ape-like (p.1719)
troglodytic (p.1685)

• Human being: Dr. Jekyll
Ex: A large, well-made,
smooth-faced man of fifty.
How are the stories different?


In the case of Dr. Jekyll, he's trying to
understand the dual nature of humans to
be both good and evil, and he wants to
separate the two to benefit himself. As for
Dr. Frankenstein, he is obsessed with the
pursuit of his scientific achievements
for all mankind.
Same character with
two persona/ two characters.
Tramps slouched into the recess and
struck matches on the panels;children kept
shop upon the steps; the schoolboy had tried
his knife on the moudlings; and for close on a generation, no one had appeared to drive
away these random visitors or to repair
their ravages. (p.1678)

Jekyll (who was composite) now
with the most
sensitive apprehensions
now with a greedy gusto, projected and
shared in the pleasures and adventures
of Hyde; but 
Hyde was indifferent to Jekyll
or but remembered him as the mountain
bandit remembers the cavern in which he
conceals himself from pursuit
Jekyll had more than a father's interest;
Hyde had more than a son's indifference.
The role of Jekyll -> father
The role of Hyde -> son



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