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A level Chemistry Unit 2

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Dominic Roberts

on 18 May 2014

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Transcript of A level Chemistry Unit 2

A level Chemistry Unit 2
Group VII Halogens
Chemistry in the Atmosphere
Organic Reaction Mechanims II
Oil Rig: Oxidation is Loss & Reduction is Gain (of e-)
Oxidation is a increases the Oxidation number & Reduction decreases the Oxidation number.
Oxidation can also mean addition of Oxygen & removal of Hydrogen.

Oxidation Number: Tells you how oxidised an atom is (charge), e.g. Ox[+1] lost 1 e- (Charge +1)
Ox[-1] gained 1 e- (Charge -1)

Ionic Half Equations: are used to show the Oxidation & Reduction parts of the REDOX recation it helps clearly show what is oxidised and what is reduced.
Polarity & Intermolecular Forces
Electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to have a greater pull on the Covalent Bond. Electronegativity increases to the right of a period and up the group. This Makes a Bond Polar if two atoms of different Electronegativity make a bond.

Polar Molecules: If a Molecule if symmetrical e.g. CCl4 there is no overal Dipole so the molecule is Non-Polar, but if it isn't e.g. CHCl3 it is Polar.
In Organic Chemistry Organic Polar Bonds are more reactive and therefor are more likely to bond and mechanisms will occur.
Kenetics & Equlibia
Chemical Analysis
Green Chemistry
Shape & Bond Angles
Group I / II metals
Organic Reaction Mechanims
Instramental Analysis
Bonds angles depend on electron pairs. Free Pairs have more negativity than bonded pairs.
2 pairs. Linear, Angle = 180. BeCl2
3 pairs. Trigonal planar , Angle = 120. BF3
4 pairs. Tetrahedral, Angle = 109.5. CH4
1 free pair. Angle ~ 107.5. NH3
2 free pair, 'bent', Angle ~ 105. H20
5 pairs. Trigonal BiPyramidal, Angle = 90 & 120. PCl5 gaseous
6 pairs. Octahedral, Angle = 90. SF6
Carbon Structures
: a Giant Covalent Structure, each
carbon atom is attached to 4 carbon atoms, tetrahedrally. This makes it one of the strongest substances known.
: Giant Covalent Structure made of hexanagol layers. each carbon atom is bound to 3 other atoms, donating 1 e- to be delocalised. these e-'s can conduct electricity. The layers can slide apart easily, that is why it is used for pencils and lubricant.
: 'Football like' balls, Simple Covalent Structure. The first was BuckminsterFullerine, (buck balls) C60. If reacted with G 1/2 metals
they can conduct as salt ions,
superconductive @ -190.
Intermolecular Forces:
Van Der Waal's (London) Forces (VDW's)
: Are caused Instantaneous Dipoles, this 'bonds' by forming Induced Dipoles. VDW's are made stronger by molecules with more e-'s or a larger size.
Permanent Dipole-Dipole Forces
: are the forces when two Polar molecules meet, the +ve & -ve poles form a slightly attractive bond.
Hydrogen Bonds
: Are the 'bonds' between Hydrogen and Fluorine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, These are stronger than most other bonds and FON are highly electronegative, so the bonds are more ionic.
Solubitly: Like dissolves like. as a rough guide, for solubility, Polar will dissolve Polar etc.
Determining Oxidation Numbers
1) For uncombined elements Ox[0]
2) Monatomic ions Ox[ion charge]
3) Neutral compound overall Ox[0]
4) Polyatomic compounds the sum of the
Ox[]'s = the charge of the ion
5) Many elements have the same oxidation
Disproportionation reactions: are when an element is both Oxidised and Reduced.
e.g. 2(H2O2) -> 2(H2O) + O2 {Oxygen is Oxidised and reduced.}
Group I:
All Soluble in Water
Thermal Stability:
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