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The Ancient Nile River Valley

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Kate McArthur

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of The Ancient Nile River Valley

Early Settlers 6000 B.C. - 5000 B.C. There they found the first evidence of people settling along the Nile. They created permanent homes and villages along the Nile River. This served as the basis for larger civilizations. The Nile River Valley is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the North, the Read Sea to the east, and Sahara Desert to the west. The Nile River, the longest river in the world, cuts straight through. At 4,000 miles long, the Nile begins as two separate rivers, the Blue Nile and the White Nile. It has a very hot and dry climate, and receives very little rainfall. 4000 B.C. Egypt is split into
two kingdoms: the Upper kingdom and the Lower kingdom. 3100 B.C. The two kingdoms are joined to create one kingdom. The capital was set in Memphis, a city built on the border between the two kingdoms. 2600 B.C. - 2300 B.C. The Old Kingdom This was a period of exponential growth. Some consider this to be the Classic Era in Ancient Egyptian times. In this time, Egyptian pharaohs began to strengthen their government. They expanded their trading terms with Nubia, Red Sea, and the Mediterranean. The Pyramids:
Several of Egypt's pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom. One of the most well known was the Great Pyramid, built for King Khufu around 2450 B.C. The Nile River Valley The Middle Kingdom 2050 B.C. - 1670 B.C. This was the golden age of peace prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture. Around 1500 B.C., the Egyptians conquered Nubia, the capital then moved from Memphis to Thebes. During the 6th dynasty (2323 B.C.-2152 B.C.), a canal was built between the Nile river and the Red Sea, creating even more opportunity for trade. Arts, literature, and architecture thrived. Walls and temples were covered with depictions of gods, goddesses and daily life. 1670 B.C. During this time, the Nobles plotted to take the throne from the pharaohs. At the same time, the Hyskos, mighty warriors from western Asia, took over Egypt for 150 years. This was marked as one of the darkest periods in ancient Egyptian history. The new kingdom 1550 B.C. - 1080 B.C. During this kingdom,
Egypt was at the height of its imperial power. Queen Hatshepsut, one of the few women rulers, took the throne around 1473 B.C. Geography Egypt became a battleground for power. In the 900s B.C. the Libyans gained control , but was lost to the people of Kush around 760 B.C. After 70 years, Egypt was conquered by the Assyrians . But even then, the Egyptian culture was able to survive for thousands of years. Social Classes Upper Class The Pharaoh and their family,
government officials, high-ranking army officials, priests, noblemen, and landowners. With the establishment of a government,
came the creation of social classes.Just like today, people can move up into a higher class if they married well, or got a better job. Middle Class This class is made up of merchants,
scribes, craftsmen, soldiers, and sailors Lower Class This class contains peasants and slaves,
but even slaves had rights. Government To keep things under control, the settlers needed to form a government. The first leaders were village chiefs. It wasn't until 3100 B.C. when Egypt had their first pharaoh as king. By: Carey Clark and Kate McArthur The Rule of the hyskos 440 metres wide 280 metres tall Ancient Egyptians form of writing, called hieroglyphics. Religion We believe in many gods and goddesses, or deities. The head god is Ra, the sun god. The main goddess is Isis, who represents a loyal mom and wife. She rules the underworld with her husband Osiris. Burying the dead We believe there is life after death. There is a special process to bury the dead called embalming. Here is the process: 1. The priests remove the organs
2. Special kinds of salt was applied
to the body.
3. The body is stored for days to dry
4. The body is filled with spices and
5. The body is cleaned with oils and
tightly wrapped with long strips of cloth Gods and Goddesses King Ahmose drove the Hyksos out around 1550 B.C., marking the start of the New Kingdom. Cites: http://library.thinquest.org http://old.clevelandstatecc.edu World History: Journey Across Time- The Early Ages
By: Glencoe Publishers Focus on Ancient Egyptians
By: Shooting Star Publishing Inc. Quiz Questions: (1) Who is the sun god?

(a) Ra
(b) Ramses the Great
(c)Queen Hatshepsut (2) What river is located near the Nile River Valley?
(a) Mississippi River
(b) Nile River
(c) Amazon River (3) Name the three major kingdoms that occurred throughout Egypt's history:
(a) Poor kingdom, Classic Kingdom, Rich kingdom
(b) Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
(c) Confused Kingdom, Happy Kingdom, Sad
Kingdom Ra, The Sun God
Ra is the god of gods. The ancient Egyptians believed that their pharaohs were decedents of Ra. Bystanders had to "smell the earth," or touch their heads to the ground whenever they saw him. Isis
Known as the protector of all, she is considered to be the most important goddess. She represent the loyal wife and mother. Also, she aides in the ruling over the dead with her husband, Osiris.
He is the god and chief god of the underworld and resurrection. According to myth, he was murdered by his brother, Seth, but was resurrected.
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