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Early Civilizations

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Ben Hemsley

on 24 October 2016

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Transcript of Early Civilizations

Chapter 1, Sections 1-3
Early Civilizations
Prehistory to History
Where did we come from?
HUMANS:

In this first section we will study early man, and the beginnings of civilizations
But first....
A few terms (get those notes ready)
History:

Pre-History:
Artifacts:
Artifacts
Artifacts can be clothing, coins, artwork, tombstones, buttons, tools ect.
Are human skeletons considered artifacts?

No.
Skeletons are considered human remains, these are not artifacts but actual people.
Artifacts are items that are
made by
humans and
do not include the humans themselves.
Pre-History
Contains no
written evidence
.
We knew very little about Pre-history before 1950.
Footprints, tools and other items were uncovered in East Africa starting in the 1930s that helped us to create a narrative of pre-history.
1959 a skull was found, embedded in a rock....
The Skull that shocked the world!
Founded: July 17, 1959, at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania by Mary Leakey
Early
hominid
A replica of the skull
Mary and her husband with the skull
A recreation of what the facial structure might have looked like.
Paranthropus boisei
2.3 - 1.3 Million years ago
lived
Then...
LUCY
was discovered
November 24, 1974, Ethopia, Donald Johanson
3.2 Million years old
Lucy's bones
What Lucy might have looked like
D. Johanson
"[...] it was the back of a small skull. A few feet away was part of a femur; a thighbone... We stood up, and began to see other bits of bone on the slope: a couple of vertebrae, part of a pelvis - all of them hominid. An unbelievable, impermissible thought flickered through my mind. Suppose all these fitted together? Could they be parts of a single, extremely primitive skeleton? No such skeleton had ever been found - Anywhere [...] I can't believe it, I said. I just can't believe it."
- D. Johanson, on the finding of Lucy.
Anthropology:

Archeology:
Did man and dinosaur exist at the same time?
NO.
(Your childhood lied to you)
(alternatively, so did mine.)
Archaeologists
Hominids
Literally means "Great Ape"
Bipedal

Form social groups, use tools, highly intelligent
Share 97% likeness in characteristics
There is one type left (what is it?)
YOU!
YOU ARE A HOMINID
(and so were your less than evolutionary lucky ancestors)
But if all these types of people are dead how do we know we are related?
Thus proving....
The idea of the origin of man (AKA where we came from) isn't as simple as MONKEY to HUMAN, as once hypothesized.
F
try again...
In fact, our ancestry looks a little more like this....
What the?
So let's boil this down.
Humans did not evolve directly from apes.
Apes and Humans DO have a
It is likely
Sahelanthropus

common ancestor
Me?
who lived about 7 Million years ago.
6 million years ago, the descendents of Sahelanthropus either became Human like or Chimps. This is known as the
Chimpanzee/Human divergence
.
Sorry, chimps are not your cousins.
But these guys totally are!
Mello Family Reunion - 15 thousand years ago
Homo floresiensis
(essentially... Early Hobbits,
YES HOBBITS)
Discovered in 2012
Somewhere in Africa
The Law of the land is
evolve
or perish
Sorry Neanderthal.
We know, because of
carbon dating
, completed in 1992.
We all contain 1-4% Neanderthal DNA.
Factoid:


We are Sapiens in the Homo Sapiens family. (Neanderthal is also Homo Sapiens). We are known as
Homo Sapiens, Sapiens
.
Homo Sapien
Migration
The story of US.
What might have caused the homo sapiens to move?
Eras of Human History

2 Million B.C. - 10,000 B.C. : Old Stone Age or
Paleolithic Period
10,000 B.C - End of Pre-History: New Stone Age or
Neolithic Period
The similarities? Stone tools
The differences? Farming and movement
Paleolithic Period
Stone Tools
Nomads
20/30 people in bands
Hunter/gatherer
Neolithic Period
Learned to farm
No need to roam for food resources
Domesticated animals (dogs came first)
Diet improves, so does brain function
CH. 1-3 HW 1
Read Pages 14 and 15 "The Neolithic Revolution Brings Dramatic Change" in your history book and answer the following question on Collaborize Classroom under the heading "CH 1-3 HW 1 - Early Man/Neolithic Revolution".

Question: How are our lives today affected by the Neolithic Revolution that occurred 11,000 years ago?

Please answer with a complete paragraph, proper spelling and grammar. AKA USE SPELL CHECK.
Your first!
First Civilizations
Along Rivers (WHY?)
Basic, organized governmental systems
Polytheistic
religions
Jobs and social classes
appearance of Art and Architecture
Organized thought and writing
Early
Public Works
Full transcript