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Transcript of MUSLIM ACHIEVEMENTS
Islam united many people. Islam enjoyed a strong central government where trade flourished and cities grew. Cities continued to play an important role in maintaining a flourishing Islamic civilization.
URBAN ECONOMY - By 1000 important cities were: Meccca, Medina, Damascus, Baghdad, Cordoba (Spain), Cairo (Egypt and most important in Africa).
Without a strong economic foundation Islamic cities would not grow so quickly. Trade included food & wool/farms, silks/China, cotton cloth/Egypt, wool carpets/Persia, steel/Damascus, leather/Cordoa and Islam is most famous for Muslim textiles (woven fabric).
Geography helped Islam be a center of trade. Muslim lands included parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa. This meant there were overland routes and lots of sea shipping. This created a network of trade on 3 continents.
Islam traders sailed in small "DHOWS". Most famous overland route was the SILK ROAD from Baghdad to China. Indian spices/gems, Chinese silk/dishes, Africa gold/salt, Amber/fur from N. Africa were traded on these routes. Ideas and inventions traveled, too: compass, paper making. Islamic culture and learning also spread.
IMPORTANCE OF MERCHANTS
Merchants were a key in the urban (city) economy. Some lives centered on the SOUK, "marketplace". Other merchants traveled on trade routes.
Muslim society honored their merchants. Successful merchants had great social mobility, could become VERY important members of the community.
PHILOSOPHY and MEDICINE
Muslim rulers prize learning so build libraries and academies where scholars studied, taught and exchanged ideas. They learned from Greek, Persian, Indian and Roman thinkers and merge these ideas with their own to create original works.
PHILOSOPHY - Islam had brilliant philosophers, like IBN RUSHD, who studied of Aristotle and other Greeks. They bring Greek logic to the principles of Islam.
MEDICINE - Muslim physicians studied works by ancient Geek scholars and improve them. They made their own contribitions. IBN SINA (AVICENNA) of Persia, wrote a medical encyclopedia of every disease and treatment, used for 100s of years.
Islam placed a
. Literacy spread through religion, reading the Quran. They had folk tales, lyrical poetry about love and nature. Books on History and Geography.
wrote a history of the world.
recorded his travels through Muslim countries.
- came from storytelling about animals, great heroes and their adventures.
ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS
was a collection of romantic stories and fables that teach lessons. It is popular world-wide and provide scholars with information about life in early Islam.
- like poetry, was an oral art form. Arab nomads spoke in verse to praise their tribes and mock enemies.
, a Muslim Persian practiced
, emphasizing controlling one's desires and giving up worldly attachments.
MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
High value on art
"God is beautiful and loves beauty."
Inspires art and architecture. Before Islam, had figures of humans and animals. Some images become OK eventually. Decorative designs on everything: tiles, carpets, domes of mosques. ARABESQUE is most popular. It is a pattern loved for its curved shapes and lines, resembling flowers/vines.
CALIGRAPHY - art of decorative writing for verses of Quran.
Painted on walls, tiles and textiles. 1300s Renaissance Europe is influenced by Muslim styles in glassware, metalwork and art.
Beatiful mosques, fountains, gates, gardens, baths and palaces. Domes and arches are prized. Islamic cultures
combine histories of the empires they took over. They influenced Islamic architecture: Byzantium, Roman especially in western Islam. Persian (Iranian) in the east and spread to India and East Africa.
PRESERVING ANCIENT CULTURES: Islam helps preserve Greek and Roman cultural achievements. Pass on their advances to Europe, as well as their own achievements in math, chemistry and other fields. Gather works of Aristotle and translate into Arabic as well as preserving original texts.
When Rome fell many works were lost, Europe gets them again because Muslim scholars translate them into Latin.
Ch 15/S4 -MUSLIM ACHIEVEMENTS
Vocabulary: textile, calligraphy, Arabic numerals
Main Contributions: Decimal system
based on Indian numerals (with "0").
introduces it to Europe, along with
(Arabic word as is Chemistry). Our numbers=Arabic numerals because it came from the Arab world (Roman numerals used before.) ASTRONOMY: observatories and star charts and they measure Earth size and create precise calendars.