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World War II

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Jerrid Harris

on 17 February 2016

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Transcript of World War II

WORLD WAR II
During WWII, African Americans fought in the military & at home
African Americans
The Interwar Period
WWI was not the “war to end all wars” because events from 1919 to 1939 led to another world war
Before the outbreak of WWII, Americans were afraid that the rise of dictators would cause another war


Salvation Army in Berlin

In the 1920s and 1930s, nationalism increased and totalitarian dictators came to power

-Totalitarian leaders came to power by promising jobs and promoting nationalism
-Dictators controlled all aspects of the nation by eliminating rivals, denying liberties, using censorship, secret police

19a
Hitler’s
Mein Kampf outlined his plans for Germany

He wrote that Germans were members of a master race called Aryans and all non-Aryans were inferior
He declared that Germans needed living space and should conquer Eastern Europe and Russia
He called the Treaty of Versailles an outrage and vowed to regain land taken from Germany after the war
In the 1930s, Japan, Italy, and Germany began aggressively expanding in Africa, Asia, and Europe

The War Begins
- In the wars before the outbreak of WWII, Americans were afraid that the rise of dictators would cause another war

- Congress passed a series of
Neutrality Acts
(1935-1937) that, in case of a war,
made it illegal for companies to sell weapons or transport goods to any nation at war

President Franklin Roosevelt wanted a more active response to stop dictators, but failed to convince world leaders to “quarantine” aggressor nations in 1937

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and World War II began between the Axis and Allies

How did the USA respond to the start of WWII?
Read and respond to situation #1 (1939)
Work in pairs within your peer accountability team.
When the war started, Congress amended the Neutrality Acts and allowed U.S. companies to sell weapons to the Allies on a “cash and carry” basis

Allied nations could buy U.S.-made war goods but had to pay in cash and had to transport goods on their own ships

The
cash-and-carry
policy allowed the USA to aid the Allies while remaining neutral and avoid the causes of American entry into the first world war

Do you remember?
From 1939 to 1940, the German military conquered most of Europe and began bombing Britain


How did the USA respond to Axis victories in 1940?
Read and respond to situation #2 (1940)

In 1940, Franklin Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented third term as president

He campaigned on a platform of neutrality but with “preparedness”

FDR prepared for possible entry into the war by calling for the first peacetime draft

The fall of France in 1940 worried Americans that the Axis Powers might win World War II

German Luftwaffe attacks on Britain meant that England needed U.S. aid more than ever

The
United States
Responds

The USA responded with the Lend-Lease Act in 1941
The Lend-Lease Act allowed the USA to send war supplies to Allied nations and transport war-related goods to Europe on armed ships

The Lend-Lease Act was used throughout WWII, transformed the USA into an “arsenal of democracy,” and helped end the depression in America

By 1941, the USA was entangled in a dangerous war: German submarines patrolled the Atlantic, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, and Japan attacked Pacific islands with little opposition
The success of the Axis Powers in Europe brought the USA closer to an undeclared war on Germany
FDR gave the navy and merchant ships authority to attack German u-boats
Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill secretly drafted the Atlantic Charter which planned a war strategy if the USA entered the war and a post-war United Nations
The USA tried to stop Japanese aggression in Asia
To protect American territories and allies in the Pacific, FDR ordered an embargo on all iron and oil sales to Japan

Hideki Tojo sent an envoy to negotiate a resolution, but secretly plotted to attack the United States
On December 7, 1941 the Japanese military led a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
How did the USA respond to the Pearl Harbor attack?
Read and respond to situation #4 (1941)
On December 7, 1941 the Japanese military led a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
After the Japanese attacks, Congress declared war on Japan
When America entered World War II, the U.S. had to fight a two-front war in Europe and Asia…
Despite the attack by Japan, FDR viewed Germany as the immediate threat and began preparing for war
Home Front
WWII
19d
The U.S. Government
To win wars in Asia & Europe & meet civilian demands, the U.S. gov’t grew to its largest size ever:
The War Powers Act gave the president power to expand the gov’t & limit liberties (censorship)
The gov’t imposed rations, sold war bonds, drafted soldiers
War Production Board directed factories to produce war supplies so that the Allies could out produce the Axis Powers

Mobilizing Soldiers: The Draft
War bonds helped raise $187 billion
WWII propaganda: was directed by the Office of War Information
Pre-fabrication allowed shipbuilders to make a battleship in 14 days (rather than 355 days)
The War Mobilization Board oversaw production of war equipment
Henry Ford’s factories made one B-24 bomber every hour
Consumers
War production stimulated the economy & created new jobs:
Business & farm profits doubled
Wages rose & people wanted to buy, but wartime production led to shortages of consumer goods
Office of Price Administration fixed prices & distributed ration books to save gas, meat, butter
Americans recycled & planted victory gardens for the war effort
Wartime Ration Books
Victory Gardens
Wartime production led to shortages on consumer goods
The American Soldier
When the USA declared war, the military needed soldiers to fight a two-front war in Europe & Asia:
6 million men volunteered
10 million more were drafted
Everything soldiers were given was “government issue” so WWII became known as “GIs”
Homesickness among soldiers was common

Preparing for a jump into Nazi-occupied France
Marines at Iwo Jima
Women
World War II led to opportunities for women in the workforce & military:
6 million women entered the workforce, many did clerical work but others did “men’s work”
200,000 women joined special, noncombat military units
Led to an increase in daycare centers & child delinquency
After the war, women were forced out of high-paying factory jobs
“Rosie, the Riveter”
Women served as military nurses & photographers
Women’s Army Corps (WACs)
Japanese-Americans
Due to Pearl Harbor, people feared that Japanese-Americans were spying or helping prepare for a Japanese invasion of the USA
In 1942, FDR issued Executive Order 9066 which ordered 112,000 Japanese-Americans to move to internment camps
The Japanese in camps faced bad living conditions & a lack of rights
Faced racial stereotypes (“Japs”)
The European Theater
1942
Americans joined Allied forces in North Africa...preferring to go at "Hitler's soft underbelly" than a massive invasion of German-dominated Europe...at the same time, the Soviet Union launch a massive counterattack that is never reversed by Hitler...the U.S. employ the use of "unconditional surrender" of the enemies
1943
After numerous successes in North Africa and Italy (in which Italy surrendered and killed Mussolini), the Allies finally grind to a standstill near Rome
D-Day: June 1944
46,000 boats launch a full assault on the beaches of France.
December 1944
Hitler mounts one last major offensive in Eastern France in the Ardennes Forest..."the Battle of the Bulge." After the German defeat, little stood between the Allies and Berlin
1945
-April 12th - FDR dies in Warm Spring, GA
-April 20th -the Soviet army captured Berlin
-April 30th - Hitler commits suicide in a bunker in Berlin
-May 7th - Germany unconditionally surrenders
-May 8th - VE Day

Casualties
Axis Powers
Germany - 5.1 million
Italy - 302,000

Allied Powers
France - 600,000
Britain - 360,600
United States - 405,399
U.S.S.R. - 27 million

Pacific Theater
19f
1942
Japan launches successful attacks on Guam and the Philippines...forced General MacArthur to withdraw to Bataan...U.S. troops held off violent Japanese attacks until they had to retreat to Australia on April 9th, 1942.

1942
The Japanese pressed forward on American strongholds until they were checked in the Coral Sea in May of 1942...all fighting was carried out by carrier-based aircraft
Japan then tried to seize Midway near Hawaii in June 3-6, 1942

1943
After the victory at Midway, the U.S. seized the initiative in the Pacific
The Battle of Guadalcanal included under supplied U.S. troops that held on by their fingernails until February of 1943 when the Japanese finally evacuated

1944
After Guadalcanal, U.S. troops were close enough to begin "island-hopping" and heavy bombing raids on the Japanese islands.

1945
Iwo Jima
- captured in March of 1945, became a haven for bombers returning from Japan
Okinawa
- captured in June of 1945 as a base for closer bombing raids
54,000 American lives were lost in these two battles

1945
Potsdam Conference
- held near Berlin, Truman, Stalin, and British leaders met and told Japan to surrender or be destroyed
Manhattan Project
-
Robert J. Oppenheimer and U.S. military detonated an atomic device in the Alamogordo desert on July 16th, 1945
Hiroshima
- the first atomic bomb was dropped on August 6th, 1945...70,000 people died instantly, 180,000 were left killed, wounded, or missing.
Nagasaki
-
the second atomic bomb was dropped on August 9th, 1945...80,000 people were killed, wounded, or missing.
Japan Surrendered on
August 10th, 1945
with the stipulation that Hirohito remain Emperor...the Allies accepted surrender on August 14th, 1945
(VJ Day - September 2nd, 1945)
How did the US respond to the Atomic Bomb?

-Read and respond to each situation
-Work within your peer accountability team.
The Tehran Conference
Potsdam Conference
American (
Republican
) Foreign Policy
Washington Naval Conference:
- 1921-1922
- 9 Nations met in D.C.
- Resulted in the
"5:5:3 agreement" (5 Power Treaty)
- This conference also resulted in the 4 Power Treaty and 9 Power Treaty
In an agreement of August 1924, the main points of
The Dawes Plan
were:

1. The Ruhr area was to be evacuated by foreign troops
2. Reparation payments would begin at one billion marks the first year, increasing annually to two and a half billion marks after five years
3. The Reichsbank would be re-organized under Allied supervision
4. The sources for the reparation money would include transportation, excise, and customs taxes
5. Germany would be loaned 800 Million Marks from the USA
By the

Four-Power Treaty
,
all parties agreed to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, by

respecting the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement, not seeking further territorial expansion
,
and mutual consultation with each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions.
The Nine Power Treaty:
United States Secretary of State John Hay had issued the "Open Door Notes" of September–November 1899, followed by a diplomatic circular in July 1900,
asking that all of the major world powers with vested interests in China declare formally that they would maintain an 'open door' to allow all nations equal rights and equal access to the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China.
The Kellogg–Briand Pact
(or Pact of Paris, officially General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy) is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states
"promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them."
Parties failing to abide by this promise
"should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty."
It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after.
The Good Neighbor policy's
main principle was that of
non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America.
It also reinforced the idea that
the United States would be a “good neighbor” and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries.
Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of the United States in Latin America; however, many Latin American governments were not convinced.
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