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Skills, techniques and tactics in team sports

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Learner Swindon

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Skills, techniques and tactics in team sports

Matthew. Southway
Skills, techniques and tactics in team sports

Skills and techniques
Throwing
- Football: When the ball crosses the boundaries of the football pitch the game will restart by throwing the ball back into play. Throwing the ball is fairly simple, two hands will be placed behind the ball, foot will stay on the ground and you are not allowed to step over the line; you must throw the ball back into play at the spot it rolled out of play. To throw the ball you must bring both hands over your head and release the ball to throw it back into play.

During a professional match the players often run onto the ball, this occurs during long throws and is effective to begin a quick attacking play straight from a throw in.

Skills and techniques
Intercepting
-Rugby: Intercepting in rugby is more or less the same as in football. You are looking to quickly regain possession of the ball as an alternative to tackling, however in rugby a quick interception can infact be more effective than a tackle if the opportunity is utilised.

To intercept in rugby you must use the same technique, try and read the oppositions intentions and when the pass is executed ensure that you are ready to run onto the path of the ball to intercept.
Skills and techniques
Passing:
- Football: Passing in football is a technique which results in the ball traveling across the field to another player on the same team.
Passing will make it harder for the opposing team to tackle you, also passing is effective in sending the ball up the pitch as it is faster than running and sometimes more effective.
-To execute a short pass it is easier to use the side of your foot and control the amount of power you strike the ball with.
- To execute a long pass a similar technique will be used, however striking the ball closer to the ground will cause the ball to gain height and following through with the kicking foot to achieve more power. This is more useful for clearing the ball from a defenders point of view, or for passing the ball up field for an attacking player to run onto.
Skills, techniques and tactics
Skills and techniques
Throwing
- Rugby: Throwing a rugby ball, as i explained earlier, is fairly simple. It requires you to throw the ball across body. To successfully execute a line out throw however you must use a different technique.

A line out occurs when the ball leaves the field of play, similar to a throw in football two hands must be on the ball and thrown over the head, carefully controlling the amount of power you put into the throw.

Skills and techniques
Intercepting
- Football: Intercepting the ball is an alternative to tackling, by intercepting you will regain possession for your team.

To execute an interception you will need to anticipate the opposing teams intentions. Remain close to your marker, anticipate when the pass is coming and keep on your toes so when the time comes to intercept you are already one step ahead of the recieving player.
Passing:
-Rugby: Similar to football, the principle of passing in rugby is mainly the same. By passing it decreases the chance of the opposing team from gaining possession of the ball.
-One of the most used passing techniques in rugby is the long pass, this pass requires two hands to move across the front of your body however spin is usually applied to the ball. These passes are typically fast and hard so they are obtained swiftly by the receiver. Long passes are often used to supply distant support players to change the point of attack or to quickly cross the ball to a player in space.
- Short passing uses a similar technique however spin is not necessary and short passes are generally used to quickly switch possession and can be used in many situations.

Skills and techniques
Tactics
Attacking
-Football: Attacking is where your team has possession of the ball and is aiming to score a goal. Attacking plays are often at a faster pace than perhaps plays where the team is aiming to maintain possession.

There are a variety of attacking plays which can be used in a game situation. The most basic attacking play which you will see being used by both amature and professional teams; wide play tactics, using the wingers to obtain a different angle of attack. Some of these angles of attack may result in the winger crossing the ball across into the opposing teams goal area, or perhaps running with the ball down the wings to create space for themselves and other players they can then pass the ball onto.
Tactics
Attacking
-Rugby: Attacking in rugby is the same as in football, you are looking to score a goal/try. The difference is the tactics in carrying out an attacking play in rugby.

You must maintain control of the ball at all times, the player with possession should run towards the try line and there should be supporting players behind him ready to recieve the ball should the player run into trouble. In rugby the ball usually travels along a line of players to break through the oppositions defensive line, players running can use attacking moves such as side stepping.
Tactics
Defending
-Football: Defending in football is where the team that does not have possession tries to prevent the opposing team from scoring a goal or passing the ball to another member of their team.

To defend your team must be able to man mark players, intercept the ball if necessary and not be affraid to block a shot if required. Generally the defenders on a football pitch will be the largest players and typically the strongest.
Defending also requires good in game knowledge. defenders must be able to anticipate the opponents intentions and relay this information to the rest of their team, this ensures that any defensive play is well co-ordinated and effective.
Tactics
Defending
-Rugby: Defending in rugby is the tactic used when the opposition is running an attacking play and you want to stop the play before they manage to score.

To defend effectively in rugby the defending players should constantly keep an eye on the teams overal defense structure when the opposition have the ball, this way if there are any weaknesses then they can easily be corrected. Furthermore avoiding being drawn to the attacking player can reduce the risk of holes creating in the defense, if you find yourself caught on your own then backpeddle and wait for support from other team members.
Tactics
Communication
-Football: In any sport the key to success is good communication with the rest of your team, good communication can be as little as a few quick words to inform the team of what is happening, or to allert them of what is about to happen.

Some examples of communication on the football pitch could be; 'man on', 'time', calling your name before recieving the ball to allert the team that you are looking to have the ball and lastly but not least telling team mates to mark a certain numbered player. These short and simple communications can make the difference between a good team and a bad one, communications are effective during attacking and defensive plays.
Tactics
Communication
-Rugby: Communication in rugby, as with any team sport, is massively effective in ensuring effective movements are made and set plays are carried out efficiently.

With rugby having set words for each situation or set play ensures that team members know what to do when they hear the set word.
Firstly offloading the ball to a forward from a ruck, if the player with possession of the ball shouts run to a forward then the opponents will know to anticipate a run, however if there was a set word to inform the forward to run a certain set play and run up field then the opponents will not anticipate this.
Furthermore when calling for a switch the opposing team can be sure to expect some sort of switch of possession however with a set word for a team mate assisted play it gives the team mate the heads up that they need them for a set play and reduces the risk of the opposition from anticipating their movements. Communication can make a strong team even stronger and ensure movements and plays are carried out effectively.
Rules and regulations
Football
Boundaries and re-starting play- if the ball exits the boundaries of the football pitch it is deemed out of play and must be thrown or kicked back into play dependng on where the ball exited the pitch. At the sidelines the ball can be thrown back into play by the team who did not kick the ball out of play. If the ball exits the pitch at the goal line then it is kicked in if the attacking team knocked it out, or it goes to a corner kick if the defending team knocked it out of play.
- To execute a throw in you must keep both feet on the floor and throw the ball with two hands over your head, the ball must be thrown in at the point where it left the pitch.
This video demonstrates how to correctly execute a throw in.
Football
offside- A player is offside when there are less than two players including the goal keeper behind him and the ball is played to him. If a player is caught offside a free kick will be awarded to the opposing team.
-The free kick must be taken at the point where the ball was kicked, some defense tactics may include an offside trap, this is where the defensive line subtly moves forward to catch the opposing attacking players offside.
This video will illustrate how the offside rule works and how it applies to an in game situation.
Football
Fouls and missconducts- A foul is where a player is tackled outside the official laws of the game, this may include; kicking, pushing, slide tackling a player recklessly or stricking a player on the opposing team. A foul will be called if a player makes a tackle but hits the opposing player before making contact with the ball. Furthermore a foul can also be called if a player makes hand contact with the ball deliberately.
- When a foul is called the team who was penalised can make a wall to attempt to block the free kick depending on the distance from the goal.
On some occasions, depending on the severity of the foul, the refferee can take action and book the player who committed the foul.
- Sometimes fouls may not be called or awarded because either the referee does not see that any misconduct has taken place or the player has dived in order to make it look like they have been fouled, this is not acceptable in the game therefore there are linesmen as well as the referee to keep an eye on all the action happening in the game.

This video will give you an idea of what constitutes a foul and explain them further.

Rugby
Fouls- A foul is considered to be anything which breaks the rules of the game, this is one of the most important rules on the rugby pitch; it helps prevent injuries and keeps the game fair.
Foul play on the rugby field can include: obstructing opponents, punching/kicking opponents, tackling too early, tackling too late, tackling above the shoulders or tackling a player whilst they are in the air. Sometimes, if the referee deems acceptable, advantage play may be given if the team who was fouled maintains possession of the ball; this provides a beneficial advantage to the team as they can continue their attack whilst they have built up their momentun.
15 seconds is an example of foul play in a game of rugby
Rugby
Offside and onside, general play- You are considered offside in rugby if you are infront of the player with the ball, to ensure you remain onside in rugby it is essential to stay behind the players with the ball in relation to the opposing teams goal line.
If you do get caught offside then a penalty will be awarded to the opposing team.
Offside in different scenarios, such as scrums and rucks, applies the same rule, you must remain behind the ball in relation to the opposing teams goal line otherwise you will be caught offside. If you find yourself caught offside you must retire before the referee awards a penalty.
This clip explains the offside/onside rule for different scenarios in the game.
Rugby
Knock on or throw forward- Occasionally the ball is sometimes mishandled and is knocked forward off of hands or arms, the player is allowed a chance to recover from this before it touches another player or the ground. If it does touch another player or the ground it is called a knock on and play will be stopped.
The ball is not allowed to be thrown forward because it is not permitted within the rules of the game, therefore passes must be thrown backwards or across the field.
At 6 seconds you will see a fine example of a knock on where the player did not recover the mistake before the ball touched the ground.
This video demonstrates a forward pass and how to correctly execute a legal rugby pass.
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