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Eric Sun

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of Penicillin

Discovered by Alexander Fleming Penicillin Penicillin, Discovered by Alexander Fleming Penicillin Alexander Fleming was a Scottish bacteriologist and accidentally discovered penicillin by leaving a culture of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered for a few days.
Penicillin was first discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming in the Inoculation Department at the University of London.
Penicillin is a powerful antibiotic that is used to treat diseases like syphilis, meningitis, and pneumonia, as well as step throat.
The discovery of penicillin was mostly ignored until World War II, when many medical stresses could be relieved by penicillin. Importance of Invention During World War II, the Allies needed something that could prevent wounds from festering too quickly because the average time lapse before being operated on by a surgeon was 14 hours, which was enough time for the wound to fester. The Allies also needed something that would treat infections better. These infections would kill many people and chances of survival were low. There was nothing very good at stopping the infections.
Waiting for a surgeon to treat a wound decreased the chances of survival of an individual and the chance of the wound festering went up, so many people were dying of infections. However, with penicillin, the chance of the wound being infected was drastically reduced and survival rates increased greatly.
Alexander Fleming had an understanding on bacteriology and knowledge on growing molds. However, it was not without the help of a pathologist and biochemist, that penicillin was actually isolated for commercial use. Importance of Invention Alexander Fleming greatly improved the world of medicine through his discovery of penicillin. Along with Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, Alexander Fleming improved the potency of penicillin. John Clark Sheehan also created semi-synthetic penicillin that vastly improved the drug's ability and decreased production time.
Penicillin greatly changed society because it improved medical care and led the fight against infectious bacteria. This allowed people to live longer and gave doctors the ability to fight diseases that seemed impossible to take on before.
If penicillin had never been discovered bacterial infections may still be the cause of death for millions. Numerous soldiers would have died from bacterial infections and traditional "quack" medicines may still be in use, such as injections of gold bichloride!
Society benefited by the discovery of penicillin because it allowed people to live longer lives without as much fear of infection, while giving doctors another drug to work with.
Penicillin may be bad because it has created new generations of bacteria that are adapted to fight against penicillin, leaving us even more vulnerable to bacterial infections as before penicillin. Works Cited "Alexander Fleming: Penicillin: Curiosity: Discovery Channel." Discovery Channel : Science, History, Space, Tech, Sharks, News! : Discovery Channel. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. <http://dsc.discovery.com/tv/curiosity/ten-discoveries-from-curious-people9.html>. - picture
"A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Alexander Fleming." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. PBS, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. - basic understanding of history of invention and inventor
Alleyne, Richard. "Superbugs threaten to render antibiotics useless, warns WHO - Telegraph." Telegraph.co.uk - Telegraph online, Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph - Telegraph. The Telegraph, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/8432357/Superbugs-threaten-to-render-antibiotics-useless-warns-WHO.html>. - cons to penicillin
MacDonald, Katie. "Synthetic Penicillin." The Cambridge Historical Society | Stewarding Cambridge's History since 1905. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cambridgehistory.org/discover/innovation/Synthetic%20Penicillin.html>. - Subsequent inventions
Mijanovich, Dr. Alice. "Life Before Series - Medicine Before Penicillin | McHenry County Historical Society and Museum." Welcome to the McHenry County Historical Society & Museum | McHenry County Historical Society and Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.mchsonline.org/Life_Before_Series_Medicine_Before_Penicillin>. - Benefits of penicllin
"Penicillin." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 6. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1207-1209. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. - basic understanding and impacts
"Penicillin." U*X*L Science. U*X*L, 2008. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. - Basic understanding and impact
"Penicillin." U*X*L Science. U*X*L, 2008. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. - Basic understanding and impact
"Penicillin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillin>. - picture
Trueman, Chris. "Medicine and World War Two." History Learning Site. History Learning Site, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medicine_and_world_war_two.htm>. - impact and effects Design Model How Penicillin was made Although penicillin was first found on a petri dish, it was not produced that way. It was produced organically at first by using corn-steep liquor, but it was found to grow much more successfully when grown on cantaloupes from Peoria, Illinois.
Penicillin was grown from molds on Peoria cantaloupes through fermentation.
Later, large scale production of penicillin was done by fermenting penicillin in deep tanks with highly regulated variables, such as temperature, purity of cultures, quality of mold spores, humidity, etc. Ginsberg, Judah. "The Development of Deep-tank Fermentation." American Chemical Society - The world's largest scientific society.. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=882&content_id=WPCP_010013&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=b51f29db-1210-4983-8b20-761c5fa55396>.
Mailer, John, and Barbara Mason. "Penicillin: Medicine's Wartime Wonder Drug and Its Production at Peoria, Illinois." IPO. Illinois Periodicals Online, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <www.lib.niu.edu/2001/iht810139.html> Design Model Bibliography THANKS FOR WATCHING
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