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Paradise: Below the Surface

The Effects of Ecotourism Development on the Original Community in Jericoacoara, Ceara, Brazil
by

Adrienne Rubin

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Paradise: Below the Surface

Paradise
Below the Surface

Social Environment
Community-Based Organizations
Ecotourism
Agritourism
Adventure Tourism
Urban Ecotourism
Rural Tourism
Geotourism
Nature Tourism
Ecotourism is defined as responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment and improving the well-being of local people.
HOST-DRIVEN
Adventure tourism is recreational travel undertaken to remote or exotic destinations for the purpose of exploration or engaging in a variety of rugged activities, regardless of socio-environmental impact or sustainability.
GUEST-DRIVEN
Sustainable Tourism
Sustainable tourism is economically profitable, socially just, and environmentally sustainable. It must conserve the cultural identity, authenticity, and autonomy of the host society while also meeting the needs of the tourists, guaranteeing future opportunities for both.
Sustainable tourism is economically profitable, socially just, and environmentally sustainable. It must conserve the cultural identity, authenticity, and autonomy of the host society while also meeting the needs of the tourists, guaranteeing future opportunities for both.
Ecotourism in Jeri
International Travel
A Growing Industry in a Shrinking World
Brazil
Ceara
Jericoacoara
1984
2012
2016
Olympic Games
2014
World Cup
2002
APA becomes a National Park
by the Prefeitura of Jijoca, the State of Ceara, and IBAMA
I
nstituto
B
r
a
sileiro do
M
eio
A
mbiente e dos Recursos Naturais
2012
Jericoacoara Visitors Center
established
1984
Jericoacoara declared an APA
A
rea de
P
rotecao
A
mbiental/
Environmentally Protected Area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
Washington Post Travel Magazine
Environmentally Protected Area
Declares Jericoacoara one of the top 10 most beautiful beaches in the world, substantially increases the flow of tourists to the area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
Construction of further accomodations and buildings over 2 stories prohibited in the village of Jeri
Environmentally Protected Area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
1992
1994
Washington Post puts Jeri on the map
Environmentally Protected Area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
1987
Official establishment of the village of Jericoacoara in the municipality of Jijoca
Environmentally Protected Area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
1923
Village of Jericoacoara receives electricity
Environmentally Protected Area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
1998
MTur, ICMBio, SeTur-CE
Ministerio de Turismo
Instituto Chico Mendes de Biodiversidade
Secretaria de Turismo de Ceara
By 2020 tourism will be the world's largest industry.
1.56 million tourists will visit foreign countries annually...
...promoting globalization, fostering cross-cultural relationships, and communicating ideas.
Benefits
Creates jobs, halts emigration, makes foreign currency contributions to the local economy, and adds to the gross domestic product.
Downsides
Tendancy to bypass the local environment and population for the sake of profit, true to the nature of capitalism.
Why is tourism so important in the context of sustainable development?
Global tourism has the potential to create opportunities for people throughout the world, both guests and hosts...
...as well as the potential to exploit people and environments for economic profit, creating further social injustice.
2nd most popular destination in Latin America

52nd most popular destination country in the world, according to the 2011 TTCI Index
Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index
Natural resources ranked 1st out of 139 countries
Cultural resources ranked 23rd
The Northeast region is notoriously the poorest and least developed in Brazil but possesses a plethora of ecotourism capabilities.

Ceara is known as
"Terra da Luz"
because of the perpetually sunny and warm climate, ideal for tourism.

Prime tourist attractions in Ceara include extensive nearly-deserted beaches (476 beaches along 573 km/356mi of coastline) and optimum conditions for aqua sports.
Construction of Jericoacoara International Airport
(still pending completion)
2014
Agencia do Desenvolvimento do Turismo em Jericoacoara
Business owners, managers, and entrepreneurs
Organized network of tourism services and activities with the goal of promoting integrated development
Works with municipality and state tourism office
Mostly addresses economic interests of the businesses involved by working for further development of the village for tourism
Membership mostly made up of educated ,elite, non-native locals with little native participation
Tendency to overlook needs of the natives
Prejudice against natives for their resistance to change
Moderator between community and outside forces, representing the voice of the people of Jeri
Presents list of demands from community for government
Resolves conflicts between residents through dialogue and friendship
Seeks solutions for economic, social, and community problems related to production, health, education, safety, sanitation, transportation, etc.
Offers surfing, kite surfing, and wind surfing lessons to less affluent children, giving them the opportunity to become competitive athletes
Supported by the community and visitors
The Effects of Ecotourism Development on the Socio-Ecological Environment in JERICOACOARA,
a fishingvillage-turned-tourist getaway in northeastern Brazil.
Adrienne Rubin
Capital and Investment

Elites own property (accomodations, restaurants, stores, or land) or businesses but are not directly involved, many do not live in Jeri.
LOCALS

Year-round inhabitants (2,500)

Managers and employees of enterprises owned by elites

Some crossover between non-native residents and elites, little crossover between natives and elites
Jericoacoarense-born and raised in Jeri

Other natives-descendents of fishermen from surrounding villages
Non-
Natives
Residents who are not originally from Jeri

Generally better-off than natives

Most participation in community-based development organizations
Distinct separation between natives and non-natives
Ecological Environment
The village of Jeri already occupies the most lush, fertile land within the Environmentally Protected Area, using resources that are being diverted from the natural ecological environment.
Tourist traffic to and from Jeri has crisscrossed the National Park, leaving sandy scars where there are not meant to be roads, interrupting and polluting the natural landscape.
Pollution from vehicles on the beach (which is prohibited) leaves black marks on the beach and the dune.

The Por do Sol Dune is eroding, due to the wind and water as well as heavy traffic every day.
Tourism in Jeri
Pousadas
205 pousadas
No building over 2 stories
No building more accomodations
Restaurants
Shopping
Most of the pousadas, restaurants, and stores are owned by outsiders or foreigners. Residents rent the space but rarely own it, and property is very expensive.
Responsible travel to natural areas while conserving them, doesn't necessarily consider population to be part of environment.
Traditional Tourism
How has the development of ecotourism in Jericoacoara effected the native socio-ecological environment?
Traditional Tourism provides infrastructure for Ecotourism...
...which is the primary focus of tourism development in Jeri.
Traditional and Ecotourism in Jeri are interdependent as well as complementary, with the goal of achieving...
Economy
In order for tourism to be sustainable as an industry...
...it must be equally accessible to all.
Especially the natives, who are the original inhabitants of the land.
For them to have that opportunity, they require access to equal resources, especially education...
...which is the theoretical focus of many community development organizations;
The relationship used to be more amiable, but more cash flow and affluence created more distinct social classes.
Vision of the future for Jeri is not shared by all sectors of society, and this disagreement creates further segregation.
Everyone who calls Jeri home feels entitled to their piece of the pie but doesn't want to share.
Natives
It's tricky to know who is truly a native and who isn't.
Native Exclusion
Competition
Means
Money
Most natives lack the capital to invest, as well as maintain their investment.
Lack of access to the same resources prevents equal access to opportunities to work in the tourism industry.
Primarily education.
Outside forces with more capital and better/more accessible resources have an advantage over natives in this industry.
Residents
Elites
Natives tend to have the least economic access...
The social hierarchy reflects the economic hierarchy in Jeri.
Tourism Industry
When it comes to Ecotourism, the natives do have the upper hand.
Time is money, and the natural environment provides the means, so natives have an advantage in activities based on the natural environment, such as adventure, sports, and nature tourism...
...but more and more outsiders are moving to Jeri to take advantage of this industry, further excluding the natives (or trying to).

Greater development will only worsen this dynamic of Jeri society.
Environmentally Protected Area
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesArea
2002-03
Sergio Herrera Gimenez
O "Espanhol"
First mayor of Jijoca (1992-1996, 2001-2008)
Advertised Jeri as a tourist destination to promote growth of tourism
Encouraged construction of infrastructure
Known for corruption and bribery
Benefited personally from investment in Jeri
Majority of construction takes place due to administrative gap
Secretaria do Meio Ambiente
Prior to Lula's administration, which restored the Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, there was an administrative gap from 2002-2003, during which all legal limitations on construction in Jeri were thrown to the wind and development exploded.
Many serve fish from local fishermen, helping keep the fishing industry and culture alive.
Why is sustainable tourism so important in Jeri?

Who does it effect and how?
How can tourism be developed responsibly as a profitable industry in a sustainable manner, which protects both the ecological and social environment?
Question facing tourism today:
Ecotourism
The Beach-
The natural environment in Jeri is playground for paradise-seekers.
(Aqua) Sports Tourism
Surfing
Kite surfing
Wind surfing
Sailing
Nature Tourism
Natural Wonders-
Pedra Furada
Dunes
Lagoes
Adventure Tourism
Horseback riding
Buggies
Sports
Culture Tourism
Capoeira
Forro
Rural Tourism
Tatajuba
Prea
Mangue Seco
(nearby villages)
Government Projects
Informal Economy
Love the Land
Preserving Paradise
Raimundo (Cabelo)
Professional kite surfer
Hand-built a buggy which can be propelled by his surfing kite
Vila Kalango
Posh Pousada
Built entirely of local materials, sorts and recycles all trash through center in Prea
Cultural Preservation
Not for Sale
Community Network
Barter System
Puga Rasta
Kite, surf, and capoeira instructor
Lives and breathes capoeira
Elena & Pepe Brazelona
Pousada Management & Kite surfing
Network of native activity-providers through pousada
Leandro
Buggy driver
Trades services to kite instructors in exchange for occasional use of equipment
Airport
Visitor's Center
But what's missing?
More tourist traffic without supportive infrastructure (sanitation, health facilities)
More environmental harm
Economy
Sustainable Ecotourism
Natural Environment
Tourist Profile
Jeri
Society

What does the future hold for Jeri?
Jeri Development Plan for Sustainability
Who comes to Jeri?
Adventurer
Time-rich, cash-poor
Relationship with natives
Love for the landscape, taste for adventure
Economically-minded
Focus on quality, rather than quantity of tourists.
“Ecotourism is a dynamic process, an element that inspires transformation, a beautiful vision and one that attracts many.”
Only sustainable as long as it is equally accessible to all.
Conservation & promotion
Local and Native Relationship
Dialogue
Partnership
Shared Future Vision
The goal of tourism development in Jeri, across Brazil, and throughout the world is an industry which is economically profitable, socially just, and environmentally sustainable. It must conserve the cultural identity, authenticity, and autonomy of the host society while also meeting the needs of the tourists, guaranteeing future opportunities for both.
...to promote social inclusivity and integrated development in order to foster progress in a manner which includes all sectors of society.
Increase native participation through availability of education
Prohibition of further construction to limit/slow the invasion of capitalism
Visitors Center
Positive: will provide water to clean vehicles, to prevent vehicular pollution of dune roads, and will centralize vehicular transportation. Will also hold seminars for environmental education.

Negative: expected to increase tourism by 30%
Education
Residents and Tourists: importance of conservation, respect for rules, trash collection
The End
Questions?
Oswaldo Leal
Director and President of ADETUR
Reco Bastos
Forro singer, restaurant manager

"Electronic music is the human disaster and should be internationally outlawed."
Moqueca
Kitesurf apprentice instructor
Learned to surf via Eu Amo Jeri
Traditional Tourist
Not technically located within Jijoca municipality
Primary investment from international
airlines, not Brazilian...
...but the majority of tourists who come to
Jeri use Brazilian airlines.
Debatable whether the construction of this airport will enhance tourism in Jeri or merely become an export airport.
Many politicians behind the project will benefit financially either way, and are pushing the project without regarding the lack of infrastructure to support much more tourist traffic.
Predicted to increase tourism in Jeri by 30%.
That's huge!!
The Center will provide information and support for tourists as well as tourism education for locals...
...thereby increasing participation in environmentally-friendly and soccially-inclusive tourism.
It will also:
Concentrate parking (good)
Build benches, stairs, rails, and kiosks along dune paths (good for tourists, impact on environment debatable)
Scheduled to start construction in September 2012.
Many politicians behind the project will benefit financially either way, and are pushing the project without regarding the lack of infrastructure to support much more tourist traffic.
Scheduled to be completed by 2014, in time for the World Cup.
History of Jericoacoara
The expected surge of tourism from 2014-2016 due to the World Cup and Olympic Games is expected to increase tourism substantially in Jeri, but can the village handle it? Although the industry is developing rapidly, the infrastructure is not catching up, and no one is addressing the question of how can ecotourism best benefit, or harm, the village as a whole?
Geotourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place, often by means of restoration or cultivation done by voluntourists. Jeri could benefit from volunteers contributing to the well-being of the village on many facets.
There are many definitions or subcategories of tourism, and not all apply to Jeri, although some could, they just have no been implemented yet. In all cases, the ultimate goal of tourism in today's world is...
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