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Gender and Sexuality

Lesson 22

Jason Whetten

on 26 August 2018

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Transcript of Gender and Sexuality

Negative Impacts?
Image used without permission from wallup.com
Gender and Sexuality
Jason Whetten
At what point in
prenatal development is the sex of the baby determined?
X and Y


Primary Sex Characteristics
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Reproductive Organs
Men: Facial hair, Deep Voice
Women: Breasts, Wider Hips
in Sexual Development
David Reimer
1 in 2000 births have visibly atypical genitalia
What would do?
"Make babies &
Keep them alive"
What does the world look like for a male if this is his goal?
What does the world look like for a female if this is her goal?
How does this affect dating?
What are men looking for in a partner?
What are women looking for in a partner?
Examples in:
Family Life
The Workplace
Gender Scripts
Where else do we see these?
Socialization of Children
TV Shows
Gender Roles
in Entertainment
Bechdel Test
1. There are 2 women with names
2. These 2 women speak to each other
3. They talk about something other than a man
Hyper-Feminine & Hyper-Masculine
If Barbie were an actual woman, she would be 5'9" tall, have a 32" bust, an 16" waist, 29" hips and a size 3 shoe
A Look at Comic Characters
A Look at Toys
Examples of
Sexual Response Cycle
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sexual Orientation
Sexual Disorders

TEEN Pregnancy
Sexual Orientation
Nature or Nurture?
PORN: The New Drug?
More than half of all people will have an STD/STI in their lifetime
I can, if I wish, legally marry my life partner.
I can, if I wish, have public recognition and support for my intimate relationship.
I have and can receive cards or phone calls celebrating my commitment to another person.
I can, if I wish, kiss my partner and show affection on the street without being conscious of what others may think or do to us.
I can, if I wish, easily talk about my relationship with anyone.
I don’t have others or myself question my normalcy.
I can, if I wish, show pain and get support when a relationship ends.
I can, if I wish, have children without any questions.
I can, if I wish, be open, without hesitation, about apartment or house hunting with my significant other.
I can, if I wish, choose not to do something if it means others may think it makes me gay or lesbian.
I am validated by my religion.
I am socially accepted by my neighbors without question.
I have accepted paid leave from my employment when my partner was sick or in need of my assistance.
I am comfortable and accepted in my children’s school, with my children’s teachers and school activities.
I can, if I wish, dress however I want without worrying about what it represents.
I can, if I wish, have in-laws.
Under probate law, I can, if I wish, inherit from my partner/lover/companion.
I can share health, auto and homeowner’s insurance policies at reduced rates.
I can and have dated the person I desired in my teenage years.
I don’t have to lie about my social activities.
I can, if I wish, work without being identified by my sexuality and culture
My sexual orientation is represented in the media and I don’t feel excluded.
I can, if I wish, share holidays with my lover and families without question or rejection.
I don’t have to explain or justify my sexual orientation.
I don’t have to be nervous about talking to my family and friends about my sexual orientation.
I don’t feel compelled to disprove myths of my own heterosexuality.
I don’t have to fear that my sexuality may become a major point in a smear campaign that may affect the custody of my child, the job I want, the house I want to buy, the way I am treated by my neighbors and family.
I automatically have custody of my own children if my partner dies.
I can, if I wish, easily visit my partner/spouse in the case of hospitalization without lying or without question.
I am accepted by society as a heterosexual person, not just tolerated.

1. NOT more likely to have gay children
2. NOT more likely to have an abusive home
3. NO difference in gender identity/perception
4. NO difference in gender role behavior
5. Two MILLION LGBT couples have expressed interest in adoption
6. Children of gay parents are more tolerant and compassionate
1. Difference in Sex and Gender
2. Misconceptions of Gender and Roles
3. Socialization of Gender
4. Diversity of Sexuality
5. Sexual Response Cycle
6. Biology of Homosexuality
7. Pornography and Sexual Disorders
What would it look like if genders were switched?
Learning Goals:
Understand the difference between sex and gender
Consider options for intersex babies
Classify primary and secondary sex characteristics
Appraise the continuum model of gender
Explore socialization of children and adults in regards to gender expectation and role
Discuss how gender impacts the workplace
Display myths about differences between males and females

So how do we
learn these?!
Nature or Nurture?
Kim Petras
At what age should children be able to choose to have genital reconstruction surgery?
Intersex Society of North America Reccomendations:
Gender Neutral Parenting?
4.0% Identify as LGBTQ
2.2% Identify as Gay
1.1% Identify as Lesbian
Problems with Gay Parenting Research
- S.E.S.
- Biological/Adopted
- Sample Size
disorder when there is a pathological assignment of sexual fixation, fantasies or behaviors toward an inanimate object -- frequently an item of clothing -- such as underclothing or a high-heeled shoe -- or to nongenital body parts -- such as the foot.
Where do these come from?
How Concerned should be be?
A. Not at all
B. Only about some ads
C. Generally concerned
D. Very Concerned
Sending and receiving sexually explicit messages via mobile phone
Who is doing it?
Use of Emojis
Media Claim
Actual Research
Gender Dysphoria
NOT the same as transgender!
Transgender -
When an individual's gender identity doesn't match the person's biological sex
Feeling of being stuck living in a body that doesn't match your gender identity that causes DISTRESS AND DYSFUNCTION
Conversion Therapy?
Where does gender come from?
Social Role Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
Social Cognitive Theory
Schema Theory
contrasting roles in society
phallic stage of development
learned through observation
mental framework
How do parents treat boys and girls differently?
Let's look at toys!

Gender at Work
Glass Ceiling
79%/ 84%
So... What ARE the differences between men and women?
46 meta-analyses that were conducted during the last two decades of the 20th century underscores that men and women are basically alike in terms of personality, cognitive ability and leadership
Only a few main differences appeared: Compared with women, men could throw farther, were more physically aggressive, masturbated more, and held more positive attitudes about sex in uncommitted relationships
Brain Differences
The tendency to value harmony over rationale is called...
The idea that self-control is a limited resource is called...
Which study..
power of roles and situations
Phil notices some litter on the ground, but decides not to pick it up because there are a lot of students around and surely someone else closer to the trash can will take care of it.
A. Social Loafing
B. Bystander Effect
C. Fundamental Attribution Error
D. Cognitive Dissonance
CDC estimates there are 357 million NEW STI's each year in the U.S. (more than 1 mill a day)
Descriptions of the feelings of orgasm written by men cannot be distinguished from those written by women
Normal fluctuations in sex hormones have a significant effect on human sexual desire
Women are somewhat more likely than men to feel bisexual attractions
Research has shows that homosexuality is linked with problems in a child's relationships with parents
Men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay
Sexual orientation is stable around age 6
All attraction follows the same patterns
NO relationship between parenting or abnormal family situation and sexual orientation
Prenatal Exposure
Correlation is NOT causation
Research is pointing toward a problem...
Brain matter decrease
"Addiction similar" effects
Other correlations
Other sexual "disorders"
Homosexuality - Removed in 1974
Nymphomania - Removed in 1987
exhibitionism, fethisism, frotteurism, pedophilia, masochism,sadism, voyeurism
Sexual Dysfunctions
Erectile disorder, orgasmic disorder, premature ejaculation
What makes a disorder?
Correlation with campus sexual assault?
Sexual Assault
11% of all students experience rape or sexual assault
27.5% of undergraduate students experience rape or sexual assault
1 out of 6 women have been the victim of attempted or completed rape in their lifetime
1 out of 33 men have been the victim of attempted or completed rape
NAU Condom Club!
Children show preference for "gendered" toys as early as 9 months

Male and Female monkeys choose toys that match their sex as well
There are far more homeless men than women making no money
There are far more academically failing men than women
Men choose jobs based on money more than women do
Men choose more dangerous jobs than women, and die more often
Men work longer hours than women
There are more men at the highest points of data pulling the average up
Has sexual assault increased or decreased?
Sexual assault has decreased 63% since 1993
55% were home or near home; 8% were at school
"penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim"
"sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent of the victim"
Men think about sex at least once every ten minutes
People are either homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual
Porn causes dissatisfaction in marriage
Men and women who enjoy more dominating and rough sex usually had rough childhoods
Be Safe. Be Open
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Some Terms:
Headless Women of Hollywood
What Piagetian Concept does this demonstrate?
Humans have the ability to unconsciously detect a person's sexuality ("gaydar")
Women are choosier than men when it comes to finding a sexual partner
Sexuality = The ways people express themselves as a sexual being. Activities associated with sexual pleasure.
Sexual Behavior
What "counts" as sex
Center for Disease Control:
10% Men/8% Women - Never had sex
97% have had vaginal intercourse
90% have had oral sex
40% Men/ 35% Women had had anal sex
The answer to this question varies a lot and makes the data on sexual behavior difficult to interpret
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