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Africa - The Mali Empire
Transcript of Africa - The Mali Empire
Century Mali Mali Mali Geography - located in the western Sudan in Africa
- dry, humid climate
- flat terrain; Northern half covered by the Sahara Desert, Southern half around Niger river valleys and the Senegal
- Niger river was a main resource to Malians, areas surrounding the river were very rich and fertile
- enabled them to be very successful in regards to agriculture
- similar to the Egyptians, the Niger river was essential to their lifestyle
- provided food, water, hygiene, transportation and other resources
- climate is always changing
- February to June; hot and dry, June to November; rainy, mild and humid, November to February; cool and dry Mali The Mali Empire - most powerful empire in western Africa who was freed from rule of former Ghana Empire
- founded by Malinke general, Sundiata Keita
- Islamic background and culture
- excelled in mathematics, astronomy and trade
- extended from the Atlantic ocean across Nigeria, Niger, and the Sahara Art and Literature Government and Law Science and Technology - The Empire’s manipulation of technology (iron and horses) and ecology (beneficial climatic shifts) are said to be the reasons why smaller polities (states) may have integrated into the structure of a larger empire
- Together the griots and leatherworkers, supplied saddles, bridles, sword sheaths, garments, and pouches for amulets
- Potters made their work out of coarse clay and added grog (crushed pot shreds). They mixed their figures by hand.
- Most surviving works are solid, but few are hollow and built with clay coils. Science and Technology (2) - Three big and famous Mosques were built in Timbuktu, Mali. They include Djingareyber, Sankore and Sidi Yahya. The Mosques are excellent examples in demonstrating earthen architecture and traditional maintenance techniques
- The Sidi Yahya Mosque, was built around 1400 by Sheik El Moktar Hamalla.
- Astronomy was a key aspect to the Dogon
- The Star Sirius and a darker star which orbits has been preserved by them
- Marcel Griaule discovered in 1931, that their most sacred and secret traditions spoke of a companion star of Siris, which they called Po Tolo. They knew that it took fifty years complete one orbit around it.
- The Dogon knew about the rings of Saturn. They also knew four Galilean moons of Jupiter centuries before Galileo discovered them
- They also have four calendars, for the sun, moon, Sirius and venus. Science and Technology (3) - Primary weapon for soldiers was a small African bow.
- Malinke (agricultural people living in Mali, Senegal, Gambia) warriors used poisoned arrows.
- For every two archers, there was one warrior armed with spear and long, hide-covered shield. Mansas’ guard used metal shields, helmets, and chain-mail that provided excellent protection, meanwhile lances and swords were excellent for charge and attack. Religion and Values - earliest form of religion is polytheistic, and animist
- animist; believe that plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena are soul bearing
- prayed to "Spirits of the Land" to bring their land prosperity and growth
- Later on became influenced by Islam and Muslim religion
- women were seen as child bearers, house workers, and producers of goods
- men were more independent and dominant, entitled to hunting, farming, government positions, etc. Economics - main contribution to the lifespan, reputation and prosperity of the Mali Empire - main and most important trade was gold
- produced more gold than any other country or nation at its economical peek - Niger River was a played a huge role in the Mali Empire, as it was a source of food and drink, good hygiene, transportation and minerals Economics (2) - other important trades and resources; salt, copper, livestock, cotton, kola nuts, ivory, and fish
- also participated in slave trade
- mostly of women and prisoners of war
- Mali Empire was at the top of the trans-Saharan trade route which ran through the Sahara and many other countries in Africa - Ancient Mali had various types of artistic capabilities. Such as making music, entertainment, and art, itself.
- Timbuktu was a part of Mali that was rich in scholars who studied religion, art, and the sciences.
- Madrasas were structures where religious studying occurred.- Timbuktu served as a centre for the trading of scholars and scholarships.
- African art was in close collaboration with religion.
- Also, the art was done to portray special events such as marriage, funerals, and such ceremonies.
- In traditional African art, the human head was portrayed much larger than the rest of the body.
- Pottery and other kitchen-ware were made by the women - King Mansa Musa made Mali grow greatly in territory and power. - Although the Mali Kings had converted to Islam, rituals and laws were maintained.
- Money made from trades and materials went towards paying off government costs and contributed to conquering more territories.
- Mali's economic downfall was caused by his trip to Mecca
- Mali took over territories causing the people in them to become their prisoners. Government and Law (2) - The leaders of the Mali empire were in the order as follows; Mari Djata I, Abu Bakr ll, Musa l, and Mahmud IV.
- Imperial powers were located in Djenne, Gao and Timbuktu
- The mali empire had quite the strong military force
- the Mali empire influenced the culture of west Africa.
-The citizens in the Mali Empire lived by old tribal ways.
- The Mali Empire army was armed and maintained by the state.
- Mali was one of the richest African States of their period Works Cited Works Cited (2) Works Cited (3) "Africa, Art and Architecture of." The New Book of Knowledge. Accessed February 9, 2013. http://nbk.grolier.com/ncpage?tn=/encyc/article.html&id=a2000322- h&type=0ta. African Code.
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Annenberg Foundation Copyright. "Trade, Technology, and Culture: The Mali Empire in West Africa." Reading 1. Last modified 2004. Accessed February 7, 2013. http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/reading_11_1.pdf.
"Archer Figure, Inland Niger Delta Style, Inland Niger Delta region, Mali, 13th-15th century, Ceramic." Last modified September 21, 2008. Accessed February 9, 2013. http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/2922764607/in/ set-72157607840881753. FindTheBest.Inc. "Mali Empire 1235 to 1610." FindTheData. http://empires.findthedata.org/l/165/Mali-Empire.
"Fourteenth Century." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0163700-00 (accessed February 9, 2013).
Holmström, Mary. "Mali." Ko-Falen Cultural Center. Last modified February 2011. Accessed February 9, 2013. http://kofalen.org/mali/.
Looting Mali's History. Last modified November 2009. Accessed February 9, 2013. http://smithsonian.com/people-places/looting-Mali.html.
“Mali Empire.” Last Modified 2009. Abagond.wordpress.com http://abagond.wordpress.com/2009/04/30/mali-empire/ (accessed February 9, 2013). "Mali Empire and Djenne Figures." Mali Empire and Djenne Figures. http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/resources/mali/index.htm.
"Mali, Empire of." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Grolier Online http://gme.grolier.com/article?assetid=0182820-0 (accessed February 9, 2013).
“Mali – History: Religion” Ancient Crossroads of Africa mali.pwnet.org http://mali.pwnet.org/history/history_religion.htm (accessed February 8, 2013)
Molyneux, Robert. "The Sirius Mystery (Book Review)." LJ: Library Journal 101, no. 6 (March 15, 1976): 823. Canadian Reference Centre, EBSCOhost (accessed February 9, 2013). Works Cited (4) The Gods That Came from Sirius. Last modified 1995. Accessed February 8, 2013. http://translate.google.ca/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_dogon02.htm&prev=/search?q%3Dmali%2Bastronomia%2Ben%2Bel%2Bsiglo%2Bxv%26hl%3Den%26tbo%3Dd%26biw%3D1249%26bih%3D516&sa=X&ei=pq4VUdD5KM242QWBvoGwCw&ved=0CEkQ7gEwAw
Timbuktu. Accessed February 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbuktu.
VBulletin®. "Legacy of Mansa Musa." Paradox Interactive. http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/ showthread.php?449813-Legacy-of-Mansa-Musa-Mali-Empire-. Agot Garcia, Charmaine Cabance, Daniela Bustamante, Jessica Lirio Thesis Mali is to be considered one of the rising nations heading into the 16th century.