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WJEC AS Physical Education

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Geraint Davies

on 1 March 2015

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Transcript of WJEC AS Physical Education

Carbohydrates
WJEC AS Physical Education
Nutrition
Carbohydrate Loading
Fats
Water
What is nutrition?
Nutrition is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
We get the energy that we need to survive from the foods we eat which contain nutrition.
Calorie intake
is one of the most important aspect of sport nutrition.
Energy Requirements
A dancer needs different caloric needs, than a hockey players needs.
Food Groups and Portions
Ballet Dancer portion size :
Hockey Player portion size:
The basic energy and nutrients needs of different individuals, in each age group are different according to:
The type of sport
The amount of training you do
The amount of time you spend doing the activity or exercise
The portion sizes for athletes also vary depending on type of sport and gender.

Balanced Diet
Energy comes from macro-nutrients which includes carbohydrates, fat and protein.
Carbohydrates, Fats and Protein
Food Into Energy
When the stomach digests the food, the
carbohydrates
in the food
breaks down

into
another type of sugar called
glucose
. The
stomach and small intestines
absorb the glucose and release it into the bloodstream. This triggers
the release of insulin
which is necessary to
help glucose enter cells
for use. Once it's in the bloodstream the glucose can be
used immediately for energy
or
stored in our bodies
to use when needed.
Starter
You have a number of foods on your desk
1. Group them into food types
2. Then arrange them in terms of how 'healthy you think they are'
3. You will need to justify your choices
TASK 2:
Identify the RDA for Men, Women and Children (16/17 years old). Then identify the percentage of each macro-nutrient in a balanced diet. Feel free to use the internet for your information...
2500 kcal/day
2000 kcal/day
Young people aged 16/17
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
The recommended amount of nutrients for a healthy lifestyle
Men
Women
2850 kcal (boys),
2150 kcal (girls)
A
calorie
is a
unit of energy
used by your body to
fuel
all body functions and activities.
The
higher
an individual's
activity
level, the
higher
their
calorie
requirements will be.
A marathon runner will require a much higher energy intake than a golfer.
Inadequate calorie intake
can cause athletes to feel
sluggish
and
weak
and can affect
coordination
and
concentration
.
Reflection of Starter
Use the A3 Sheet to record what you already know about Nutrition
Today

RDA
Components of a balanced diet
Factors influencing a sports persons diet
TASK 1:
What factors determine the number of calories required by a sports person?
A ‘balanced diet’ is the correct
proportions
of
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins & fibre
needed to maintain good health.
Energy Density of each =
4 Kcal/g
4 Kcal/g
9 Kcal/g
TASK 3:
Identify the key nutrients needed for a balanced diet and match it with the correct function.
Summary of Learning and Homework
Summary:
Add to your A3 sheet the things you now know
Homework:
Complete the table at the back of the hand out by Thursday
60%
15%
25%
L17
L18
Today
It is important that a person has a
neutral energy balance
. This means the amount of
calories consumed
, is
equal
to the
amount burned
through the day.
Energy Balance
Starter
Starter
What interesting things did you find?
What is a positive energy balance?
What is a negative energy balance?
What is the result of each?
TASK 4
Analyse the dietary requirements for these 4 athletes?
A

sedentary lifestyle

is a type of lifestyle with

no or irregular physical activity
. A person who lives a sedentary lifestyle may colloquially be known as a
couch potato
. Activities include sitting, reading, watching television, playing video games, and computer use for much of the day with little or no vigorous physical exercise.
TASK 5:
Now examine the dietary requirements of an individual living a sedentary lifestyle
Glycaemic Index
Learning Outcomes
Add to your A3 sheet what you already know about this concept
By the end of the lesson:
ALL:
Define Glycaemic Index; Identify and describe the influences that glycaemic index can have on metabolism, performance and health.
MOST:
Explain how high and low glycaemic index foods can be used to manipulate performance and health.
SOME:
Compare & contrast different diets suggesting strengths and weaknesses of each relating to specific sporting examples.
Summary of Learning
ALL:
Define Glycaemic Index; Identify and describe the influences that glycaemic index can have on metabolism, performance and health.
MOST:
Explain how high and low glycaemic index foods can be used to manipulate performance and health.
SOME:
Compare & contrast different diets suggesting strengths and weaknesses of each relating to specific sporting examples.
TASK 1:
Draw a flow diagram for this process...
1.
Eat a sweet
2.
What happens next i.e. what does your body do as soon as food is placed in your mouth?
3.
What happens next i.e. when you swallow the sweet, how does your body react?
TASK 2:
Read the paragraph on your hand out and then....
Now write questions for the answers in bold,
Or
Design 5 questions that can be answered from the text


Glycaemic Index
TASK 3:

Describe what the graph below is demonstrating. Suggest food types which fall into either the ‘high GI’ or ‘low GI’ category.
Have a look at your own food diary for ideas....
Food Types & GI
Not all high GI are bad!!
What is your food diary made up of??
TASK 4
Split into 3 forms
Mono-saccharides
Di-saccharides
Poly-saccharides
TASK 1:
You are a dietician working with a person who wishes to improve their diet and lose weight. Produce some easy to follow guidance which includes:

a)
The physiological processes that occur when high GI foods are consumed
b)
The potential health problems associated with consuming high GI foods
c)
Examples of diets that are suitable for health and weight loss
Glycaemic Index for Health and Weight Loss
You may use the guidance is that is situated around the room to support your work
Mono = 1
Glucose
is a monosaccharide as it's made up of 1 carbohydrate molecule
Monosaccharides
Saccharide = sugar
Found in
starchy
foods such as
pasta, potatoes,
and
breads
Disaccharides
Di = 2
Saccharide = sugar
Sucrose is a disaccharide as its made up of 2 carbohydrate molecules (1 glucose and 1 fructose)
Fructose
is another common carbohydrate. It is commonly found in
honey, flowers,
and
fruits
. Fructose is also a monosaccharide.
Sucrose is otherwise known as table sugar
Found in foods such as
fruits
and
vegetables

Polysaccharides
poly = many
Found in
fruit
,
vegetables, potato, rice, pasta, bread
and
cereals
.
Known as 'Complex Carbohydrates'
All carbohydrates get broken down into
GLUCOSE
This process starts in the mouth, continues in the stomach and then in the small intestine
At this point it is released into the blood stream and taken to the liver where it has 3 possible fates.....
TASK:

Using what you know and what you can see, what are these 3 fates?
2.
Stored as glycogen - can be converted back into glucose within moments
3.
Converted into fat and stored in the adipose tissue
We can store glucose in this way in a limitless store
We can store glycogen in relatively small amounts
3 Fates of Glucose
1.
Used immediately by the working muscles to replensih ATP stores - glycolysis
Known as 'simple carbohydrates'
Do you think you could rank them in descending order?
You are your partner will decide the food which you feel has the lowest GI ranking
You will make a note of this
Each food will have its GI shown
You will calculate your score via the difference between your GI and the lowest GI rating
Combine your scores to calculate your total
Round 1
Round 2
Round 3
Task 4:
Analyse how knowledge of the glycaemic index is beneficial to the following:
Starter
Add to the white board what you know about GI and Carbohydrate
Links to sport?
Links to health?
Pre/Post competition (your sport)
During competition (your sport)
Weight loss
Healthy Living
Q.
Using information from the diagram and your own knowledge, explain the variation in food fuel usage. [4]
Windows
The exam question is on the walls around the room
Work with a partner to answer
one section
of the question, before then
moving onto the next window
on another flip chart.....
Reasons for variation in fuel usage:
a. The body will use the most efficient source of fuel.
b. Fats need 15% more oxygen to be metabolised than carbs.
c. Carbohydrates provide energy at a quicker rate.

Other factors that affect the fuel we use:
d. The aerobic fitness level of the individual.
e. Duration of the activity.
f. Anaerobic activity requires carbohydrates/glycogen
g. C P
(2 x 2 marks)
TASK 1:
Explain how and why fuel usage changes depending on exercise intensity. Make reference to sporting examples.
Now use what you have learned to either
answer the exam question
Or
Complete the mind map on page 2
which should include all of the information you have covered so far this lesson
There is a document at the front which will help you if required
Exam Question Mark Scheme
The Glycaemic Index and Exercise
TASK 2:
Using your knowledge of GI; a) outline what GI would be most suitable pre, during and post exercise b) give reasons for your choice of GI c) give examples of suitable foods for each stage
d) provide sporting examples to support your work
Low GI 3/4 hours before in order to provide sustained energy and allow the digestive system time to digest the food fully.
Before Exercise
Immediately prior high GI as provides a quick source of energy.
However, this provides an insulin spike which can make glucose usage more difficult as too much is released at once
Whole wheat pasta, vegetables, porridge, fruit
During Exercise
High GI foods provide immediate energy which is essential to maintain exercise intensity
Blood glucose levels are maintained, particularly during endurance type events, where stored glycogen will be used up at a faster rate.
Isotonic drinks, gels, jelly babies, jaffa cakes
Post Exercise
A mix of
high, medium and low GI
foods to restore muscle glycogen levels used during activity and help with recovery
High GI should be consumed within 30 minutes of exercise to restore muscle glycogen as the cells are more receptive at this time
Low GI provides a s
ustained source of fuel
for the body during the recovery process
Should be avoided!
!
A meal of
high and low GI
should be consumed within the
first hour post exercise
as metabolic rate remains elevated for 4-5hours post exercise
Homework = Reflection Questions
Proteins
Relies on a concept called
'Super Compensation'
Carbohydrate loading is a method used to maximise an athlete’s
GLYCOGEN
stores prior to an endurance event.
• Depletion stage (reducing the muscle glycogen stores)
• Tapering stage (reducing the amount of training)
• Loading stage (increasing the consumption of carbohydrate
When the body is starved of glycogen it thinks there is a problem and will store larger amounts than normal. So when you do eat carbohydrate your body replenishes its stores and stores extra
Starter
Before half term we looked at proteins and fats
In your team put together a short quiz to check the learning of the other group
Harvey
Jaime-Leigh
Atlanta
Harry
Jack
Dec
Alice
Lottie
Harriet
Jake
Ellie = Quiz Master
Work out your percentage score
Peer Explaining:
Now work with a partner to explain to each other what this concept is - make notes based on your understanding......
The most common method is the Shearman Method..... 3 stages.....
Shearman Method
TASK 1:
Explain how these 3 stages work
TASK 2:
For each day provide some examples of the diet and training that the athlete could do in order to carbohydrate load following the Shearman method.
Summary of Learning
Create a short bullet point list of the main things you have learned this lesson
Be specific
Use your learning outcomes on your hand out to help you
Supplements
Today we are going to research the biggest part of the health and exercise industry - supplements
Try to
TASK 1
and
2
to start
Ergogenic Aids
An ergogenic aid is anything that can
enhance performance
.
This could be
physiological
such as altitude training
Nutritional
such as creatine monohydrate
Psychological
such as imagery
Internet Research
Research the variety of supplements that exist
What are they for?
What Sports would they be useful for?
What are their potential strengths?
What are their potential weaknesses?
Prep for Next Lesson
We have looked at a variety of nutritional factors over the last few weeks
- Identify the most common health issues that exist in the UK and worldwide
- What are the possible causes?
Full transcript