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Cells and Organelles

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Nizar Salam

on 15 October 2014

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Transcript of Cells and Organelles

All living organisms on the face of this earth consist of smaller particles that keep them functional and successful. These particles are the cells, which consist of all the essential biological equipment.
Organelles are smaller pieces that make up the cell itself.
Introduction
Cells and Organelles
Consists of an organized nucleus with a nuclear envelope.
Consists of an area where the DNA is kept/held.
It could become large in size.
Originally, they are a couple hundred times the size of a prokaryotic cell.
Eukaryotic Cells
Do not have an organized nucleus.
DNA floats around the cell.
Most prokaryotes are bacteria.
They are the simplest form of organisms.
They do not consist of a mitochondria, a nucleus, or chloroplasts.
Limited in size; small.
Prokaryotic Cells
The protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell.
They could be found floating in the cytoplasm or stuck to the ER.
Ribosomes
The Ribosomes, which are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, produce protein that is exported and sent out of the cell.
Ribosomes (Part 2)
By: Nizar Salam and Richard Cartwright
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Packaging system of the cell. (ER)
Works with RNA, mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, and the Golgi apparatus.
Rough ER
Packaging proteins that may be used within the cell.
Ribosomes are attached to its membrane, which makes it rough.
The amino acid chain is inserted in to the ER, and a vesicle is created.
Smooth ER
Used in the creation and storage of steroids (ringed organic molecule).
Stores Ions, which may be needed later on.
Lysosome
Single-membrane organelles.
Most often found in eukaryotic cells.
Main function is to digest.
It also holds enzymes that were originally created in the ER.
Lysosomes are specialized vesicles that hold a variety of enzymes.
Enzymes are sent out to digest or break down substances.
Golgi Body
Receives simple molecules, it turns them complex. They are packed in vesicles for later use.
It creates sugars, which are put into vesicles, and are the builders of lysosomes.
When a protein is made in the ER, a transition vesicle is made and is absorbed in the Golgi.
The golgi works on it and produces a secretory vesicle, which is exported out of the cell membrane.
Vacuoles
A source of storage in cells.
Found in both animal and plant cells (grander in plant cells).
Store nutrients for cell survival.
Store waste products, prevent cells from contamination.
Help plants store the water received.
In plants, it provides turgor pressure.
Cell Wall
Made of cellulose (specialized sugars).
Found in plant cells.
The cellulose provides a protective layer for the plant cells.
The cell walls consist of holes called "Plasmodesmata", which allows the flow of substances.
Though, losing water is a problem, but can be recovered.
Cell Wall (Part 2)
Chloroplast
Food producers of plant cells. Also gives plants their green color.
Convert the suns energy into sugars, through the process of "Photosynthesis".
The sun hits the chloroplast, the chlorophyll use the energy to combine CO2 and H2O and produce sugar and O2.
Chloroplast (Part 2)
Two membranes act as protection for the inner part.
The stroma is the place where starches are created, and for reactions to take place.
Chloroplast (Part 3)
Each thylakoid stack is called a granum.
They consist of chlorophyll molecules which use sunlight to create sugars.
The Stromal Lamellae holds these sacs together, it protects them, and makes the organelle more effecient.
Citations
Nucleus
It is a small circular component of a cell.
It’s main functions are regulating cell activities, metabolism, growth, and reproduction.

Nucleolus
It is a small part within the nucleus.
It’s main functions are forming rRNA (Ribosomal Ribonucleic acid) and combining rRNA with proteins.
Produces Ribosomes.

Cytoplasm
It is a jelly-like substance, in which all the organelles float in.
It encases the nucleus and is protected by the cell membrane.
It’s functions are most cellular activities such as cell division. Also, movement of calcium ions in and out of it is a signal for the metabolic process.

Cell Membrane
It is a layer that surrounds the cytoplasm.
It serves as a sort of shield around the cell to protect it from it’s surroundings.
It is a bilipid layer.
It controls what goes in and out of the cell.
Nuclear Membrane
It consists of two layers: Inner and outer.
Envelopes the nucleus.
It has pores that allow the flow of substances, such as ribosomes.
Mitochondria
They are small organelles resembling long ovals.
Transform glucose, with the help of oxygen gas, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy of the cell. This process is cellular respiration.

Vesicle
It’s main functions are involving in metabolism, transport, buoyancy control, and enzyme storage.
Transports certain substances within the cell.
Exports certain substances out of the cell.

"Cell Wall - What's it for?." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Cell Walls. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_wall
"Chloroplasts - Show me the Green." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Chloroplasts. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_c
"Endoplasmic Reticulum - Wrapping it Up." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Endoplasmic Reticulum. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_er.
"EUKARYOTES - CELLS WITH PARTS." Biology4Kids.com: Microorganisms: Eukaryotes. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/micro_e
"File:Golgi apparatus (borderless version)-en.svg." - Wikimedia Commons. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Golgi_apparatus_(borderless_version)-en.svg>.
"Golgi Apparatus - Packing Things Up." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Golgi Complex. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_gol
"Glogster Home page." Glogster. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.glogster.com/true411/glog-5804/g-6m1lo07qs83tihv6brf7pa0>.
"Lysosomes - Little Enzyme Packages." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Lysosomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_lyso
"PROKARYOTES - MISSING A NUCLEUS." Biology4Kids.com: Microorganisms: Prokaryotes. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/micro_pr
"Ribosomes - Protein Construction Teams." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Ribosomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_ribos
"Ribosomes." Ribosomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/ribosome.html>
"Vacuoles - Storage Bins to the Cells." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Vacuoles. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_va

Picture Citations
http://biologos.org/blog/bacterial-flagellum-appearances-can-be-deceiving
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuole
http://www.geocities.ws/copdcure/2.html
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/vacuole.html
http://www.shmoop.com/biology-cells/all-eukaryotic-cells.html
http://www.shmoop.com/biology-cells/prokaryotic-cells.html
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-ciliated-cells.htm
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Citations Continued
Walsby, A. "Abstract." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 5 Aug. 2013. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC372955/>.

"Calcium." Calcium. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150845/>.

"Cellnucleus.com Template." Cellnucleus.com Template. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.cellnucleus.com/education_main.htm>.

"Cilium." Kids.Net.Au. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/ci/Cilia>.

Alberts, Bruce. "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.." The Lipid Bilayer. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26871/>.

"Nuclear membrane." - definition from Biology-Online.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Nuclear_membrane>.

"Nuclear Protein Database (NPD)." Nuclear Protein Database (NPD). N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://npd.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/user/compartment?page=nucleolus.html>.

"What are mitochondria?." Mitochondria Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.mitochondrial.net/>.

Cilia
Small projections that come out of the cell.
They are short and numerous.
Found some animal cells, except arthropods and nematodes. Rare in plants.
Main function is to move the cell from on place to another.
They can also be used to move liquid over the cell's surface.
Flagellum
It is a tail like structure.
The main role of the flagella is locomotion (the transport of the cell). It also takes part in being a sensory organelle because it is sensitive to unfamiliar chemicals and temperatures.
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