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Voltaire Presentation (Final)
Transcript of Voltaire Presentation (Final)
Saul Covarrubias Conclusion: Voltaire's Life Francois-Marie d’Arouet born in 1694 in France.
Born as one of the elites of French society. 1694 Birth 1718 Arouet adopts the name "Voltaire" Pen Name 1725 He was exiled from France to Britain, following an exchange of insults with the French nobleman Chevalier de Rohan. Exiled 1733 Along with the publication of his "Philosophical Letters," Voltaire was exiled a second time. "Philosophical Letters" 1759 Criticism aimed at France and it's society. Candide 1778 Died on the 30th of May, at age 84. He was secretly buried at the abbey of Scellieres in Champagne, because he refused to retract his works prior to his death. "He fought the atheists and fanatics, he inspired the tolerance and claimed rights against slavery and feudalism." Skepticism Philosophical Letters on England Inspired by As a skeptic philosopher, Voltaire held the belief that everything had to be challenged with critical reasons. Candide “This is the best of all possible worlds” Meaning: God makes the best choices therefore when he created this world he created the best world that he could. Voltaire essentially rejected Leibniz as a logical thinker. Critiques Newtonian Physics Cartesianism Voltaire denied by means of logic that Descarte’s had any viable information that would move the science of their time to the modern science that we know of today. (Shanks) (Shanks) (Voltaire - Biography) (Voltaire - Biography) (Johnson) (Hewett) (Voltaire, "Candide") Candide (Riley) It was because of his rationalistic view that he sided with Newton and promoted his scientific discoveries. Injustice: This world is not at all "the best of all worlds." (Riley) "Railed against injustice, metaphysical absurdity of every ilk, clerical abuse, prejudice, and superstition." An idea originating from the philosophies of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Candide Others Enlightenment philosophies' thoughts. Rationalism The Scientific Revolution "It must be confessed that these two great men differed very much in conduct, in fortune, and in philosophy." Candide's destiny takes him in a trip around Europe and the Americas in search of his beloved one. Through the criticisms found in Candide and his support on Newtonian Science, Voltaire initiated a domino effect of rational thoughts that would resound and be heard for over six generations. Criticism of irrational and flawed thoughts. It other words, Voltaire served as a judge of the sciences of his time judging how one was more realistic than the other. Scientific Revolution (Voltaire, "Lettres Philosophiques") Rationalism Skepticism Nothing about the external world such as the future or other people's minds can be known.
Involves the tendency to deny things, ideas, or observations Skepticism: Skepticism Skepticism: the main purpose is not to deny things.
denying something would mean agreeing with its opposition.
not denied that it is possible to have knowledge of the external world. Pierre Bayle French writer and philosopher
skepticism portrayed on essays
Believed skepticism was a process of forming judgment Michel de Montaigne Voltaire's philosophical skepticism Voltaire believed that... There are a total of twenty-four letters. Each focuses on different topics such as religion, politics, science, and the arts. Voltaire never denied the aspects of the religions. He interviewed Quakers and Presbyterians about their traditions and views and simply questioned the motives or reasons behind them. He is most critical of the church since he believed it to be a manipulative organization by nature which prohibited freedom of thought. Freedom
Liberty Religion Government Voltaire believed that society has the liberty to "find the proper course of free action themselves" but he also believes that society is "incapable of such self-knowledge and control" As a believer for society to advocate individual freedom, “Voltaire was a passionate advocate of religious toleration” Religion Voltaire’s philosophy has explored how society practices their natural freedoms and liberties through religion. Religion became a need to maintain social order
skeptic of human inability to control themselves with liberty (Shank) Voltaire’s advocacy of religious toleration has influenced the life of any modern individual today through the Establishment Clause which denies government the right to establish a single religion. (Visconsi) (Walker) ("Skepticism''
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) French writer and philosopher
Thought even reason should be questioned Academic Pyrrhonian (McKinley) ("Pierre Bayle Biography''). ("Skepticism'') Frederick Morgan also states that “Voltaire’s oft-repeated motto was “Ecrasez l’infame” which meant to crush the infamous. Voltaire sought to use his liberty as a “political relativist rather than a democrat or a leveler” Government Through liberty, Voltaire also explores the idea of freedom from the government With the natural right to freedom, Voltaire believes it should be used to crush the infamous, but the true question is what IS the infamous? (Sense). Voltaire did not wish to abolish the monarchy; rather he wanted to restrict its tendency to authoritarianism.
He believed that this freedom of speech and liberty was the basis for all other freedoms. (Shank). The infamous was a broad term used “to cover all arbitrary systems of oppressive power” (Sense). Skepticism in modern movies: Connections to
Modern Day LIfe Life Syrian Uprising Egyptian Uprising Greek Protest Literature Thomas Paines "Common Sense." The Age of Reason The French Revolution The American Revolution Season 3 Ep. 10 (Fish Out of Water) Family Guy "I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it." - Voltaire Television: He encouraged thoughts on Science.
Discouraged religious beliefs Voltaire criticized: His mentor, Pangloss, is the symbol of the general Enlightenment philosopher. In his search he finds out that the world is full of darkness and is at times not at all pleasant. Metaphysics: Absurdity of the attempt to comprehend the world. Clerical abuse: The church is corrupt but it is necessary. Prejudice: Another reason for why the world isn't the best. Superstition: We assume to much, when we should think. "In France Voltaire became the greatest popularizer of Newtonian Physics." Aftermath Joseph Conrad "...to him the meaning of an episode was not inside like a kernel but outside, enveloping the tale which brought it out only as a glow brings out a haze" Skepticism (Conrad, 3) The conflict between the humans and the machines
"Real world" in which the humans fight the machines and the "stimulated" world where humans serve the machines by being plugged into computers. The question is whether the "real" world portrayed by Zion is real. Case Objective The Establishment Clause Conrad, Joseph. Heart Of Darkness. Unabridged. New York: Dover Publications, 1959. 3. Print.
Halsall, Paul. “Voltaire (1694-1778): Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778.”
Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.
Hewett, Caspar. The life of Voltaire. Diss. The Great Debater, 2006. Web.
Johnson, Michael. “The Delightful Voltaire: An Anti-Statist for All Time.” The American
Spectator. July-Aug. 2010: 68+. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.
McKinley, Mary B."Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de." World Book Online InfoFinder. World
Book, 2013. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. <http://www.worldbookonline.com/pl/infofinder/ article?id=ar368900&st=michel+de+montaigne>.
Pearson, Roger. Voltaire Almighty: A Life in Pursuit of Freedom. 1st. New York; NY:
Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005. Print.
“Pierre Bayle-Biography.” The European Graduate School. N.p. Web. 20 Jan 2013. <http://www.egs.edu/library/pierre-
Riley, Patrick. “Voltaire.” Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World.
Ed. Jonathan Dewald. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 8 Jan. 2013. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/bic1/?userGroupName=sapl_main>.
“Sense and Sensibility: Engage All Senses for F&B Success.” Religious Conference Manager, 21.2 (2009): 49. Pg 492-
498. 8 Jan. 2013.
"Skepticism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University, 2001. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.
Visconsi, Elliott. "The First Amendment And The Poetics Of Church And State." Raritan 26.2 (2006): 114-136. Art Full.
Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 11 Jan. 2013. <http://www.visconsi.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/
“Voltaire.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University, 2009. Web. 8 Jan. 2013.
“Voltaire - Biography.” The European Graduate School. N.p. Web. 8 Jan 2013.
Voltaire. Candide. Trans. Philip Littell. N.p.: Project Gutenberg, 2006. N. pag. Web. 20 Dec.
Voltaire. Lettres Philosophiques. New York: n.p., 1998. N. pag. Fordham University. Web. 22
Jan. 2013. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1778voltaire-lettres.asp>.
Walker, Cliff. N.p.. Web. 23 Jan 2013. <http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/quotes/
voltaire.htm>. No authority or institution should be exempted from being challenged by critical reason. A true philosopher would lack knowledge on certain subjects, would have the courage to admit his ignorance, and would be willing to learn. A philosopher will doubt the things he thought to be easily understood as much as those that are difficult to understand. Fanaticism is bad: leads to manipulation of judgment & restricted thought. Works Cited All of these beliefs and ideas are reflected through his work in which Voltaire offers readers an account of several aspects of English society. Philosophical Letters on England (Paul Halsall) Voltaire opposes the way society sets values in hope of keeping harmony. This caused the authority to be rigorous when enforcing those values. Voltaire thought imposing values on everyone would actually disrupt peace and lead to conflicts between those who did not accept those values. Voltaire is this type of skeptic. The Matrix The End