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The french and Indian war
Transcript of The french and Indian war
England claimed the Atlantic coast. France claimed the great lake territory, Eastern Canada and the Ohio territory. Swedish and Dutch had colonies around New york. Spain claimed South and central America.
Their was plenty of land but each Nation came for there own reason. The French started a Fur trading Company when the English came for land. Each Nation were always aware of each over.
By this time England had kicked out the Swedish and the Dutch. Also the English started to traded furs with the Natives. The French had already started to trade with the Indians. Compared to the French furs, The English Furs were cheaper.
The French & Indian War
I. A fight for a Way of Life
A. A new land
B.We are not alone
II. War Breaks Out
A. A fight for land
B. The last of the Spark
III. A New Continent and Power
A. A final decision
B. Peace for now
Map of North America before 1756
French and Indian War
Terms: ally, treaty, retaliation, casualty, Proclamation of 1763, nullify, neutral, rebellion, Loyalist, siege
Different Views of Land Ownership
The Indians allied themselves with the French against the British. This fighting lasted from 1754-1760. Hence the name, "The Seven Year War"
Both France and GB claimed the land drained by the Ohio River
GB based its claim on the 1671 Batts and Fallam exploration of the New River, whose water flow into the Kanawha, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers.
FR based its claim on the 1669 exploration of the OR by Rober Cavelier de La Salle.
Native Americans were caught between the British and the French. They held the first claim to the land and seemed to think that the Fr were less of a threat to their lifestyle. The Indians did not see land as private property, and boundaries were not defined.
Differences between the Indian and the British views of land ownership:
~ The Indians didn't have strictly defined boundaries; one tribe or group of tribes may have control over an area but the size varied.
~ The British surveyed in order to gain private ownership.
Treaties: Most Indians saw treaties as an end to war or announced a trade agreement; but had nothing to do with ownership of land. They also saw agreements as changeable.
The British saw the treaty as a way to take control of property. Europeans saw them as binding.
The French were not as concerned with permanent ownership of land. They were more interested in the fur trade and did not pose as much of a threat to the Indians. The Fr and Indians pledged to keep the British from changing the frontier lifestyle.
The events that played major roles in the future war were:
1- The Nemacolin Path that was cut and brought the French and British into direct contact with the Ohio River at Pittsburgh.
2- The signing of the Treaty of Logstown giving Virginia control over the Ohio Valley.
The French and the Indians wanted to hunt and trap in the western territory while the English wanted to make permanent settlements in the area.
A Sequence of Events Leads to War
1. Governor Dinwiddle sent George Washington to Fort LeBoeuf near Lake Erie to ask the French to leave the Ohio River.
2. Washington was unsuccessful and returned to Williamsburg. He reported that whoever built a fort at the confluence of the Ohio River (Pittsburgh) could easily control the Ohio Valley.
3. Governor Dinwiddle directed William Trent to build a fort at the confluence of the Ohio River. When Washington went to check Trent's progress, he found that the French had destroyed the half-built fort and built their own called Fort Duquesne.
This caused Washing to retaliate. He killed the French leader Joseph Coulon de Villers de Jumonville.
The location of the first fighting of the French and Indian war was Green Meadows, just south of Pittsburgh.
French advantages to the first battle:
larger land claim
existing forts in the Ohio Valley
Indian tribes as allies
superior military officers and army
no personal interest in the land
poor supply lines
British advantages to the first battle:
powerful Iroquois allies
control of the oceans
population concentrated in a relatively small area
desire to protect their own property
focus on military organization
poorly organized frontier volunteers
less qualified officers
4. French retaliation: The French were angry and planned a counterattack. Washington learned of the plans and hurriedly completed the building of Fort Necessity at Great Meadows.
~ July 3, 1754, the British were attacked and lost.
The terms of surrender:
Washington agreed to leave the Ohio Valley and not return to build forts for one year.
Washington agreed to return all the prisoners he had taken in the battle in which Jumonville was killed.
The French returned to Fort Duquesne and agreed to not build any more forts in the Ohio Valley.
5. The arrival of General Edward Braddock:
Great Britain sent two regiments under the command of General Edward Braddock to reinforce troops in the Ohio Valley.
brought large wagons full of supplies on roads that had to be widened to accommodate their size.
followed their leader who rode in a chariot.
wore bright red (scarlet) uniforms.
traveled slowly because they built bridges over every stream they crossed.
took two months to travel from Cumberland, Maryland to Ft. Duquesne (now Pittsburgh).
fought continental style vs. from behind trees.
Braddock was wounded in a battle at Ft. Duquene and later died from the wounds.
Mary Draper Ingles: Draper's Meadow
The day before Braddock's defeat at Ft. Duquesne, the Shawnee raided a settlement at Draper's Meadow, near Blacksburg, Va. After killing many settlers, the indians took Mary Draper Ingles, her two sones, her sister-in-law, and Henry Lenard prisoners.
The prisoners were taken to the junction of the Ohio and Scioto rivers where they were separated. Mary was taken to a salt lick near Cincinnati, Oh. She later escaped and, along with a Dutch woman, followed the rivers for about 500 miles. After six weeks, she arrived back home where she was reunited with husband and , in time, with her son Thomas and her sister-in-law, Bettie Draper.
The French and Indian War officially begins
April 1756~ The French and Indians attacked and defeated the British at Fort Edwards. This is considered the official start even though they had been fighting for years.
May 1758~ Shawnee attached and defeated the British at Fort Seybert.
the British also lost battles at Ft. William Henry and Ft. Ticonderoga.
After several years of defeat, the British govt put William Pitt in charge of the war.
Under Pitt's leadership, the tides of war changed.. the British began winning.
The British won victories at Louisburg and Ft. Frontenac.
The French destroyed Ft. Dequesne rather than lose it to the British.
The British rebuilt Ft. Duquesne and named it Ft. Pitt
On September 19, 1759, the British won their most important victory at Quebec. However, the fighting continued for another 3 years.
Treaty of Paris 1763
The Treaty of Paris officially ended the French and Indian war
Provision of the treaty:
France gave Canada most of the land east of the Mississippi River, and the islands of Grenada and the Grenadine in the West Indies to Britain.
France gave Spain west Louisiana and New Orleans.
France received the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe from Britain.
Spain gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba and the Phillippines.
After the war was over, there was another issue... the war cost money!
Imposed taxes to raise money to pay for the war.
The colonists did not think they should pay the taxes because :
they did most of the fighing in the war and considered that was payment enough.
the taxes were passed without any input from the colonists.
This disagreement over taxes is one of the things that started the American Revolution!
Questions from sect. 1:
~ Answer these on paper!!!!
1. What two European nations claimed land in the Ohio Valley?
2. Why did Washington make a diplomatic mission to Fort LeBoeuf?
3. Why was Fort Necessity built?
Mikey: Write a newspaper article describing General Edward Braddock's march. Include a description of the equipment that he took into battle.
Lucky: Write a list of things or ideas that might have settled the conflicts in the Ohio Valley peacefully.
Section 2: Continued
Problems with the Indians
Settlers claim forbidden Western Lands: The colonists were already upset over having to pay the new taxes and the Proclamation of 1763 added to this anger. This proclamation forbade settlement west of the Allegheny Front. The proclamation also ordered all those who already settled in the West to return to the East immediately.
A difference of opinion:
King George III~ Feared Indian uprisings if settlers were permitted to move into the Western lands. He felt that this proclamation was in the best interest of the colonists.
The Colonists~ they felt that the Proclamation removed the Indian threat in the Western lands and that the land should be used as a reward for their bravery during the French and Indian War.
John and Samuel Pringle
~ These brothers deserted from Fort Pitt and moved into the western area. They lived in a hollow sycamore tree. They used the sycamore tree as a hiding spot (since they were deserters) until the French and Indian war was over.
~When they returned to the East, John told people about the land in the West. A number of people traveled back to the Buckhannon River area with him.
Legally moving into the Western Lands:
~ The Proclamation of 1763 divided the indian territory west of the mountains in to north and south districts.
~ The land north of the Ohio River was overseen by William Johnson. Johnson negotiated the Treaty of Fort Stanwix which gave the British all the Iroquois land south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny Mountains.
~The land to the south, which went all the way to Florida, was administered by John Stuart. Stuart negotiated the Treaty of Hard Labor in which the Cherokee gave up all their lands between the Kentucky and Kanawha rivers.
These two treaties took away the legal rights of the Proclamation of 1763 and opened the western land to migration and settlemet.
Settlements that resulted in the two treaties:
1768: John Simpson~ settledon the Elk Creek near present day Clarksburg.
Zackquill Morgan~ settled Morgantown.
1769: The Zane family settled in Wheeling.
1770: The Tomlinson family settled Grave Creek , now Moundsville.
Proposed changes in western Va.
George Washington owned over 55,000 acres of land in western VA. He planned to settle his lans in present day Mason County. He sent a employee t, James Cleveland, to design and establish a planned community of indentured servants from Ireland.
GB granted land to a group of speculators, including Benjamin Franklin, for a fourteenth colony to be established in the western lands. The colony would be called Vandalia and its Point Pleasant.
What stopped both of these projects?
The American Revolution!
Lord Dunmore's War
Section 2 questions:
1. What was the Proclamation of 1763?
2. What two treaties nullified the Proclamation of 1763?
3. How did the British government anger the colonists after the end of the French and Indian War?
Discuss: If the colony of Vandelia had been created, how might West Virginia's history look different?
Complete together: Design a poster to show support or opposition the issuance of the Proclamation of 1763.
Indian Problems continue:
~ Michael Cresap's attach at Captina Creek
~ Murder of Logan's Family
! Murder of Chief Balk Eagle
Lord Dunmore was the Governor of Va. He decided it was time to destroy the power of the Indians. He assembled 2500 men to do this however many doubted his reasons. Some believed that his real motive was to draw attention away from the colonists' grievances against the British government.
Dunmore assembled the army and split it in two He commanded one part of it and Colonel Andrew Lewis commanded the other half. Dunmore let his army to Fort Fincastle, in Wheeling. From there, Dunmore sent half of his troop to meet Lewis. He was marching his troops from Lewisburg to Point Pleasant. Dunmore continued to move his troops down the Ohio River from Wheeling but stopped before meeting Lewis' forces. Shawnee Chief Cornstalk felt this was the time to attack, before Dunmore's troops could arrive.
~ Result The Battle of Point pleasant.
The Battle of Point Pleasant:
Andrew Lewis divided his men into two divisions. He appointed Colonel William Fleming to head one regiment and his brother , colonel Charles Lewis, was chosen to head the second division.
A third group, under Colonel William Christian, was to oversee the transportation of supplies and baggage.
On October 9th, Cornstalk's indians attacked two soldiers. One was killed but the other escaped He ran to warn the others back at camp ..
Oct. 10, 1774~ The Bloody battle at Tu Endie Wei~
Frontier men had superior weapons
Indians fought from behind rocks.
The battle lasted all day
About 200 Indians were killed along with about 50 Virginian's including Colonel Charles Lewis.
At the end of the war:
Cornstalk retreated across the Ohio River and asked for peace.
Treaty of Camp Charlotte was signed by Lord Dunmore, the Shawnee, the Delaware ad the Mingo.
This temporary treaty called for the return of all prisoners and horses held by the indians; and they would give up their rights to hunt south of the Ohio River.
All of the terms from the Treaty of Camp Charlotte became permanent in the Treaty of Pittsburgh.
Fort Gower Address
Tensions between the colonists and the British government continued to grow and people continued to question Lord Dunmore's motives for fighting the Indians.
Soldiers met at Fort Gower and issued a statement known as the Fort Gower Addres.
In the statement, the soldiers pledged their allegiance to King George III and Lord Dunmore, but they also expressed a feeling of independence when they pledged that from this time on their love of America and Virginia would be of utmost importance.
What is the significance of the Battle of Point Pleasant?
Some think it was the first battle of the American Revolution.
It was responsible for keeping the peace between the Indians and the colonists for the first two years of the American Revolution.
To view a shor video on Point Pleasnt, see : http://wn.com/wei_(state)
Who was Mad Anne Bailey?
Read Pg. 368 as a class. Why was she "mad'?
and the American Revolution
1776~ Independence declared!!!
Troops were organized!
One from Berkeley County and another from Frederick County. The leaders were Captain Hugh Stephenson and Daniel Morgan.
Attack on Ft. Henry in Wheeling: 300-400 indians, supplied with arms and ammunition by the British, attempted to force the colonials out of the fort by placing it under siege.
Do you think the Indian's could get the westerners to leave the fort?
Nope! The defenders refused to exit
the fort and in the end, the Indians retreated
But as they retreated, the Indians burned
many of the houses surrounding the fort,
killed the cattle, and destroyed crops.
He came to the aid of Ft. Henry and found that he could not get into the fort. McCullough rode away from the fort and was followed by a group of Indians . While being chased, he found himself backed up against a steep cliff, surrounded by Indians. He guided his horse to the edge of the cliff and forced it to jump to safety. This "leap" is an example of bravery during the American Revolution.
In September 1777, Cornstalk visited the Fort to warn colonial commander Matthew Arbuckle of a possible Indian attack.
Cornstalk and Delaware chief Red Hawk were taken prisoner.
Due to the death of 2 white hunters by Indians while the prisoners were held, they decided a fair punishment would be death. Cornstalk, his son, and Red Hawk were killed.
West Virginia History
War in Western Virginia
By Jaime Smith
Attack on Fort Randolph & Fort Donnally
May 1778, 2000 Indians surrounded Fort Randolph and demanded their surrender. Captain William McKee refused. After a week, the Indians left taking the local cattle with them.
Captain McKee believed the Indians were headed to Fort Donnally in the Greenbrier Valley. He sent two volunteers to warn the settlers in the area. The volunteers, Pryor and Hammond, arrived at Fort Donnally before the Indians.
The Fort was attacked around dawn. The settlers held the Indians until Captain Arbuckle arrived from Camp Union with a company o sixty-six men. The Indians once again fled.
The Second Battle at Fort Henry
On September 10, 1782, Fort Henry was attacked by a company of 40 British soldiers and 238 Indians. After about two days, the defenders began to run out of gunpowder.
A 16 year old girl named Elizabeth (Betty) Zane, volunteered to run to her brother's house a few yards from the gates of the fort to secure the needed gunpowder.
Did she make it???
1. Look at page 374, how many battle took place within present day WV?
2 Why did Cornstalk go to Fort Randolph? What happened to Cornstalk?