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The Battle of Stalingrad

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by

Alexa Resnick

on 18 February 2015

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Transcript of The Battle of Stalingrad

Germany:
- Avoid war on two fronts


Russia:
- Stalin knew that Hitler would inevitably want to invade the USSR and needed time to ready his armed forces
- Stalin knew he couldn't depend on allied powers

- Enabled Germany to attack Poland without fear of intervention from Russia
- Germany and Russia divided Poland, with the east under Soviet control

The Battle
of Stalingrad
by Alexa Resnick and Danielle Cass
Motives behind Germany's attack on Russia:
- To expand territory
- Germany feels the oil reserves in the Balkans, which Germany relies greatly on, was being threatened
- Stalingrad was a major industrial and transportation center on the Volga River
- Stalingrad had symbolic importance to the Russians
- The occupation of coal, iron, and agricultural centers in the Ukraine and Caucasus
Operation Barbarossa
-German invasion of Russia through Poland
- June 22, 1941 to January 7th, 1942
- Ended the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact
- Hitler's ideas- his generals advised against it
- Hitler predicted a quick victory but this was not the case
- Army groups invaded Russia in three directions
-wanted to take control of Moscow
-originally had no intentions of controlling Stalingrad
General Friedrich Paulus
- Commander of the German 6th army
- Ordered to capture Stalingrad in the summer of 1942
Germany:
-used the Lufftwaffe (airforce) to bomb Stalingrad and the Volga River
- Lack of fuel and supplies slowed down progress
-Russia:
- Soviet forces were waiting
- Drafted a million Soviet soldiers
- USSR's rapid industrialization was helpful in providing resources

Russian Tactic: Hand to Hand Combat
-Rattenkrieg, or "Rat's War,"
- The Soviets fought for every building (street fighting)
-new technological advancements
- The city was rapidly being destroyed
- The Russians faced more casualties, but they also had more supplies and men ready at hand
-Germany captured 90% of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression pact of 1939
German and Russian Intentions Behind The Pact
German invasion of Russia
Hitler and Stalin
Beginning of the Battle
Volga River
- Germans were unable to gain control of the Volga River
- This allowed Russians to bring in supplies through that route
-the river froze in the winter, preventing boats from passing through
Weather Conditions
- Heavy rains of October turned the roads into seas of mud
- Tanks had trouble driving
- The German troops were not prepared for the harsh winter
-
They were in freezing and low on supplies with no way to get more
Operation Uranus:
- The Soviets counter-offensive
- Russia's encirclement of the German 6th army around Stalingrad
-cut off supplies to Germans
-changed the dynamic of the battle
Starvation
- The German soldiers were running out of food
- Paulus gave the order that only those who fought would be given food
- Men were too weak for a breakout
Rescue Attempt and Re-supply

- Attempt failed because the troops couldn't break through the soviets encircling the city
- At the same time he tried to send supplies to the troops, via airdrops, but only about 10% actually made it to the troops
Significance
-morale boost for Russia
-seen as a turning point on the Eastern front
-Hitler invaded Stalingrad against the advice of many and this proved to be his greatest mistake
-Hitler lost the trust of his generals
-marked the end of Germany's victories in the war

http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/816763?terms=battle+of+stalingrad
http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/757379?terms=aggression
- Responsible for the ruthless brutality during the battle
- Both demanded that their armies wouldn't surrender, at whatever cost
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/hitler_russia_invasion_01.shtml
http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/756565?terms=barbarossa
http://spartacus-educational.com/RUSstalingrad.htm
http://spartacus-educational.com/RUSstalingrad.htm
http://spartacus-educational.com/RUSstalingrad.htm
November 19-20 1942
Cost of Battle
- Regarded as one of the bloodiest battles in history
- Extremely high casualty rates on both sides
- Stalingrad was destroyed
- A large number of innocent citizens were killed
Thank you!
summer of 1942 - February 2, 1943
Defeat of the Germans
- Paulus surrendered to the Red Army on February Second 1943
- The German prisoners were forced to march to Siberia
- Many died during the march to the prisoner of war camps
Georgy Zhukov
- A soviet general in charge of the Red Army
- Invented Operation Uranus, which helped the USSR win the battle
Hitler's greatest mistake
Operation Blue
-May 8th, 1942
-a two-pronged attack with the goal of capturing the oil fields in Caucasus and the city of Stalingrad
-Hitler split his forces
http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/758957?terms=battle+of+stalingrad
Full transcript