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Genetics

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Maggie Green

on 25 March 2014

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Transcript of Genetics

Genetics
on p. 5
How are genotype and phenotype different?

In your own words describe dominant and recessive genes.
WHO?
I think we need to start with a short video to see who this guy is and why he's important. (about 11 min.)
Page 2 in your handbook
Heredity
is the passing of genetic traits from a parent to an offspring, that's you.
Important stuff to know about Mendel
(this goes on p.1)
He used
pea plants
in his experiments
Mendel found a 3:1 ratio of dominant to recessive genes
He discovered the principles of heredity, or the passing of traits from parents to offspring
He is known for his contribution to modern genetics.
This video might be a little easier to understand (only 3 1/2 min)
finishing p.2
let's watch this video first
GENE
The
instructions
for an inherited trait found on the DNA.
Offspring have two forms of the same gene for every characteristic; one from Mom and one from Dad
Genetics
The scientific study of
genes, heredity, and the variations found in
organisms
Phenotype
Genotype
Let's start with Gregor Mendel
More about traits and genes
A
characteristic
is a feature that has different forms in a population, such as eye color or hair color or are you right handed or left handed
Traits
Traits are the different forms of a specific characteristic

Dominant trait

-

Hides a recessive trait.
It shows up most often.
According to Mendel, it is
the trait that shows up in
the first generation.
on to p. 4
recessive trait
-
Shows up the least
The trait that reappears in the 2nd generation
Allele
-
One of the different forms of a gene
that determines a characteristic.
We use capital and lower case letters
to express a gene.
ex: B- dominant & b- recessive

p. 1 in your handbook

Why don't I look like a rhinoceros?
now on p. 6
Homologous chromosome
Remember this one?
Chromosomes that have the
same
sequence of genes and the
same
structure
Homozygous
Two dominant genes or two recessive genes
ex. BB or bb
aka: purebred
on to p. 8
Heterozygous
One dominant and one recessive gene
ex. Bb
aka: hybrid
p. 3
Answer the question in your own words
What is the difference between a trait and a characteristic?
p.3
Explain the difference between a gene and an allele.
Punnett squares
A diagram used to organize all the possible combinations of offspring
still p. 8
probability
The mathematical chance that something will happen

25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%
Mendel's 3:1 ratio
Now let's practice some Punnett squares on p. 7
Purebred - homozygous alleles BB or bb
A few more words you should know
Hybrid - heterozygous alleles Bb
mutation - a gene undergoes a change that results in a trait expressed differently
p. 10
monohybrid cross - inheritance pattern of a single trait between two homozygous organisms (first generation)
Let's draw that one in our handbook
p. 9
How can probability be used to predict possible phenotypes?
p. 11
How are genes and alleles related to genotype and phenotype?
answer the EQ on p. 12
How are genes, chromosomes, and inherited traits used to determine the appearance of offspring?
The combination of genes (inherited alleles) for specific traits
The entire genetic make-up of an organism
What you're made of
ex. BB, Bb,or bb
these letters represent genotype
An organisms appearance or detectable characteristic
What you can see
ex. widow's peak, freckles, roll tongue
Full transcript