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Students with Speech and Language Disorders

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Alyssa Scott

on 9 April 2014

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Transcript of Students with Speech and Language Disorders

Biological:
result of problems related to the central nervous system or to the structure/functioning of other systems within the body (ID, AU, ADHD, AI, VI) EBD individuals who internalize may experience difficulties due to inattention to others’ speech resulting in a language delay.
Students with Speech and Language
Disorders

Chapter 9
Speech and
Language Disorders
The most appropriate setting in which nearly all students can learn and practice speech and language skills is general education.
Who?
1.7%
Cognitive:
no generalization
Academic Difficulties:
reading and writing
Social/Emotional:
self concept
Benefits:
authentic social situations, functional context, collaboration

Co-teaching:
SLP and teacher design and deliver language based interventions to all students
Environmental:
repeated ear infections, no peers or adults to model appropriate language, punished for being noisy, abusing voices (screaming/yelling can lead to hoarseness/inability to speak loudly enough), poverty (malnourishment leading to brain damage; less likely to receive medical care)
Presented by
Elaine Bushnell
Alyssa Scott

Best Practices
Inclusive Practices
Causes
Nature
Hooway for Wodney Wat
according to IDEA: a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance
Start of 20th Century
1940s
1980s-2000s
1945-1975
Early 19th Century
Early 19th Century
Study of speech-language disorders on behalf of individuals who are deaf begins in Europe
Mrs. Leigh suggests rolls of linen placed under the tongue as a treatment for stuttering/stammering
Beginning of 20th Century
Professional role emerges, filled by those in education and medicine, called speech clinicians.
Speech clinicians focus exclusively on the correct production of sounds.
First formal training program for speech clinicians was initiated.
1940s
Speech/language field expands rapidly to meet the needs of returning WWII soldiers with brain injuries.
1945-1975
Emphasis on treatment for children expands from a focus on sound production to include the use of language to communicate.
1980s-2000s
Emphasis on treatment for children expands again to blending speech, language, and the context of communication.
Behavioral:
due to inability to express needs
Trends/Issues:
multicultural; evidence based practice
Speech Disorders
Students may have difficulties in any of these four components or any combination.
Voice
difficulty with
pitch
intensity
- (too loud or a whisper)
vocal quality
Some voice disorders are caused by physical disabilities such as cleft lip or palate
Resonance
a quality imparted to voiced sounds by vibration in anatomical resonating chambers or cavities (as the mouth or the nasal cavity)
Articulation
Many young children experience
omissions
(boa for boat)
substitutions
(wan for ran)
additions
(ammaminal for animal)
distortions
occur when a sound not found in the child’s language is used for another sound (soup)
These errors are considered a disorder when they persist beyond the typical developmental period
Fluency
stuttering
- (most common) speech is broken by sound repetitions, prolonged sounds, or unanticipated stoppages
cluttering
- bursts or pauses in unexpected places during speech
Language Disorders
Students may have significant and chronic problems related to the following components or encompass several.
Phonology
ability to hear the sounds in a language and to use them correctly
phoneme
- set of sounds (/ae/ in pain, bay, game, nature)
phonological awareness
-

ability to identify those sounds and to manipulate them (rhyming).
*dyslexia
Morphology
ability to form words using one or more morphemes within the rules of the language
morpheme
- smallest units of language that have meaning and are composed of phonemes
free morphemes
- can stand alone (child, pretty, run, to)
bound morphemes
- prefixes (pre-), suffixes (-ed)
Syntax
ability to recognize and follow the rules of order in which words are used
The clear blue sky. (rather than) The sky blue clear.
Semantics
pertains to the meaning and precision of the words selected
"It was bad outside."
"The temperature was below zero, the heavy, wet snow was accumulating quickly, and the wind was howling."
Pragmatics
function or use of language within a social context. Rules such as:
only one person speaks at a time
everyone contributes
interruptions are usually avoided
topics are introduced, explored, and then completed.
language delays
- acquires language at a rate slower than is typical
aphasia
- loss of language after it has developed, receptive and expressive. (traumatic brain injury)
central auditory processing disorder
- do not have hearing loss but the brain does not effectively interpret the auditory information that comes from the ears
Does Wodney have a speech or language disorder?
What speech disorder does Wodney Wat have?
Concerning the nature of students with speech and language disorders, what characteristics does Wodney display?


At what age should Wodney’s substitution for /r/ have been mastered?
What placement would you suggest for Wodney?
Create a cause for Wodney’s speech disorder.
Early Childhood Intervention-
the earlier intervention is begun, the longer it is implemented and the more likely the problem will be addressed effectively. Overcoming SLD will more likely be maintained if support is provided during the critical years.
Placement-
Speech only in general education. Traditional pullout is considered if other disabilities exist.
Combination-
separate service, in class service, and indirect service.
Friend, M. (2014). Special education: Contemporary perspectives for school professionals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
apraxia
- extraordinary difficulty in producing speech that other people manage easily (all encompassing).
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