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Cell Structure and Function

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Zoe Lodato

on 4 January 2011

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Transcript of Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure Types of Cells

Primitive nucleus
Cell Wall

True nucleus
Membranous organelles Endomembrane System
-A system of interrealted membranes

Smooth Er
Rough Er
Golgi Appartus
Vacuoles Smooth Er

Network of interconnected tubules that is known as smooth because of its lack of ribosomes.
Important in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, and calcium storage in muscle cells.

Rough ER

Network of interconnected tubules that is known as rough since is it studded with ribosomes.
Important in making more membrane and modifying proteins

Golgi Appartus

Receives and modifies substances made by the ER.
One side cis- receives trans-ships


Produced, in animals cells, by the rough ER and the golgi.
"Breakdown body"
Made of hydrolytic or digestive enzymes.
Recycling centers for cells. Mitochondria- ATP main energy source for cell work.

"Power house of cell"
Carry out cell respiration in almost all eukaryotic cells
Enclosed in a double membrane - Inner membrane and Intermembrane space-> filled with fluid; known as mitochondrial matrix. Chemical reactions occur there.
Folds are called cristae.
Endomembrane System-
A system of interrelated membranes.

Smooth Er
Rough Er
Golgi Appartus
Vacuoles Smooth Er
Network of interconnected tubules known as smooth because of the lack of ribosomes.
Important in lipid synthesis, detoxification of drugs, and the storage of calcium ions in muscle cells.

Rough Er
Network of interconnected tubules known as rough since ribosomes are studded on it's surface.
Important in making more membrane, and to modify proteins.
Common in all cells
Bounded by a plasma membrane
Cell Structure and Function Prokaryotic
No true nucleus
DNA is known as the nucleiod region; no membrane surrounds.
Cell wall- maintains the shape and protects the cell.
Capsule - help glue prokaryote to surfaces
Some also have pili - short projections that also help cell attach to surfaces
Flagellum - long projections that help propel the prokaryote through environment
Plant cells are prokaryotic. Eukaryotic
True nucleus
Cytoplasm - fluid-filled region between nucleus and plasma membrane
Eukaryotic cells consists of organelles bounded in membranes; "membranous organelles." These cells are also so compartmentalization.
Animal cells are eukaryotic. Golgi Appartus
"Warehouse / finishing factory"
Trans side of the golgi receives products from the ER, Cis side ships
Finishes the products made by the ER which in turn becomes part of the plasma membrane.

Produced by the golgi and rough ER.
"Digestive hydrolytic enzymes"
Recycling centers for cells
Steps in making lysosomes:
1. Rough ER packages enzymes in transport vesicles
2. Golgi refines the enzymes chemically and then releases mature lysosomes.

Membranous sacs.
The central vacuole of a plant cell functions like a large lysosome.
Vital in maintainance of cell's internal environment. Chloroplasts - convert solar energy to chemical energy.
Found in plants
double membrane
Fluid in chloroplast is known as stroma
Stack of hollow disks made of thylakoid membrane ---> granum.
Grana are the sites where cholorphyll traps solar energy. Mitochondria - cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells
Convert chemical energy in foods to chemical energy of ATP *main energy source for cell work.
Double membrane
Intermembrane space - contains one fluid filled compartment
Inner membrane- another compartment with fluid known as mitochondrial matrix ( many chemical reactions occur there)
Folds in inner membrane = cristae; increases mitochondria's surface area which in turn increases production of ATP in mitochondria. Cytoskeleton: network of protein fibers

Fibers provide structural support for cell
Help regulate cell's activities by transmitting signals from cell's surface to interior
3 kinds
Microfilaments (actin filaments) - thinnest type of fiber
Solid rods made of globular protein called actin arranged in twisted 2x chain
Form 3D network inside plasma membrane that helps support cell's shape,
Intermediate Filaments - made of fibrous protein - middle thickness
Ropelike structure
Reinforce cell shape
Anchor certain organelles
Microtubules - thickest of fibers
Straight, hollow tubes made of globular proteins called tubulins
Dissemble and reassemble in a cell that may cause rigidity in the shape of a cell
Provides anchorage for organelles that act like tracks for organelle movement into the cytoplasm Main differences between plant and animal cells Specialized Animal cell

These type of cells are different than a general animal cell because they specialize in a specific function in a specific organ or tissue. In humans, though, all of the cells are specialized..
Example: Muscle cell

Cell movement - Cilia and flagella

Cilia : short, numerous. Propels cell with coordination
Flagella : long, few. Propels cell by whiplike motion
Both are made of microtubulses wrapped in an extension in plasma membrane. Ring of nine microtubules doublets surrounds central pair of microtubules - known as 9 + 2 pattern.
Extends into a structure that anchors called a basal body - pattern of nine microtubule triplets. Basal bodies can act like a foundation for microtubule assembly.

Cilia and flagella bend by dynein arms that are powered by ATP which move doublets of microtubules relative to one another. Since they are relative to one another the doublet bends instead of sliding past each other. In plants : plasmodesmata - channels between adjacent plant cells that function as communication system which connects the cells in plant tissues.

In animals : extracellular matrix (sticky layer of glycoproteins) Helps hold cells together in tissues and regulates cell behavior from contact with proteins in the plasma membrane which is also in contact with fibers in the cytoskeleton.
3 junctions also connect animal cells:
Tight junctions
Bind cells together; leakproof sheet.
Anchoring junctions
Bind cells together with cytoskeletal fibers; strong sheets.
Gap junctions
Channels like plasmodesmata of plants. Allow molecules to flow between neighboring cells. Specialized Plant cell

These types of cells are different than general plant cells since they specialize in a specific function within tissues.
Example: Collenchyma Cell - By: Zoe Lodato and Kenneth Barragan What plant cells lack: What animal cells lack: - Flagellum Types of Cells Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells make up bacteria and archea, whereas protists, fungi, plants, and animals are composed of eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are much smaller and less complex than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus, a cytoplasm, and other organelles. Not all eukaryotic cells are equipped with a cell wall which the prokaryotic cell does not lack. The eukaryotic cell also lacks a sticky capsule. -Chloroplast
-Central vacuole
- Rigid cell wall Breakdown Lysosomes
-Digestion of nutrients and bacteria. Also fixes damaged organelles. Peroxisomes
-DIverse metabolic process.
-Stores food, water, and chemicals Manufacture Nucleus- Transport of macromolecules.
Golgi Apparatus- DNA synthesis
Smooth ER- Lipid synthesis
Rough ER- Protein synthesis
Ribosomes- Polypeptide synthesis. Metabolism/ Energy processing Cell Movement Attachment and Communication Thanks for watching!
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