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Nervous System of a Squid
Transcript of Nervous System of a Squid
produce sweat. The body reacts to stimuli by transmitting the reaction down a network of neurons. These are cells that are specific there to sending messages to the brain. Once the message reaches the brain it carries out a reaction by muscles and glands. In most creatures there are four steps when it comes to sending messages. These steps are made up of nerve tissue. The First Step Sensory Neurons carries the message gathered by the receptors then carries them to a coordination center. Second Step Motor neurons carries the analysis of the message gathered by the receptors to the reaction tissues. The way the message transmits from one neuron to another is by passing neurotransmitters through the synapse. All Types of Nervous Systems Vertebrate Nervous Systems Vertebrates have evolved to have a nervous system containing to parts: the Central Nervous System and The Peripheral Nervous System. The Central Nervous System includes the brain and the spine where the impulses are analyzed. The Peripheral Nervous System includes the sensory and sensory organs and then transferred to motor neurons that transfer to the Central Nervous System. Why do Vertebrates have such
complex nervous systems? The reason why they have more complex nervous system than invertebrates was because as evolution progressed some creatures began having more control over their body and began developing more complex systems. This led the Central Nervous System and The Peripheral Nervous System. Homo Sapiens (Humans) In Homo Sapiens stimulus are detected by skin, or nerve cells on organs such as the eyes and the ears These all transmit stimulus reactions to the main component of the Nervous system, the Brain. Made up of three parts, The Forebrain, Midbrain and Cerebellum, the brain connects to the spinal cord, another major component of the Human nervous system. Forebrain The Fore brain is made up for two parts that each have four lobes. In this section there are a massive amount of neuron cell bodies that allow is to have complex thoughts. The brain is able to fit so many cells into the brain because of its tight folds of brain material. Here speech, emotions and reasoning are regulated here. Underneath the two hemispheres are the thalamus and hypothalamus. These two parts are incredibly important to the nervous system because they analysis most of the sensory details. These two parts are incredibly important to the nervous system because they analysis most of the sensory details Midbrain The second part of the Midbrain is mostly a connection between the Forebrain and the Hindbrain. Hindbrain Finally the Hindbrain, sends the impulses out in reaction the sensory details and the humans intentions. Spinal Cord The spinal cord connects with the medulla oblongata. While also providing a backbone, allowing humans to have upright posture, it also connects to the peripheral nervous system making links between the brain and the rest of the body. Amphibian (Frog) Its main sensory organ is its eyes. It protects it from water and land by a layer called the Nictitating membrane One of the other sensory organs is the tympanic membranes, which like ear drum echo vibration into the fog allowing it to hear. Also like the mollusk family have a way to detect water flow called lateral line systems. The Brain There are three sections in a frogs brain; Fore, Mid and Hind. The Fore-Brain has the Olfactory lobs that controls smell. The Mid-Brain has the optic lobes which control the frogs eyesight Then the third part of the brain, the Hind-Brain is split into the cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The cerebellum controls balance, muscular coordination while the medulla oblongata control respiration, digestion and other. This is then connecting to ten pairs of cranial nerves that pass information on to the others. Cetacean (Harbor Porpoise) Most of the Harbor Porpoise nervous system reflects
its Homo Sapiens cousins. Most Cetacean animal most important sensory device is their ears, by using echolocation they find their way through murky waters to capture food. Like humans they have two types of nervous systems;
voluntary and automatic. All Invertebrates (Horseshoe Crab, Squid): Arthropods (Horseshoe Crab) The nervous system is split into part and contain Ganglia. Like vertebrates arthropods have a dorsal brain and ventral nerve chords. This is more evolved than other invertebrates who only use ganglia for their nervous system The main controller, the brain, is found in the front of arthropods. This is another genetic adaption in order to allow the organism to sense stimuli and react quicker. Mollusks (Squid)- The mollusks nervous systems are made of two longer nerve cords that connect to masses of ganglia. There are two pair main never chords; the ventral pair and the dorsal pair. Since mollusks are usually flexible and able to twist into many different ways, these nerves have unique configurations Another adaption that mollusks have are a chemoreceptive sensory organ that analyses water currents. Works Cited
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