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Agata Pacia

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Nanotechnology

When you work with materials on the scale of atoms and molecules their typical characteristics start to change and unusual things can happen.
Working with nanotechnology can help innovate new ideas in fields of science and in engineering.
Nano WHAT?!
But What's It Got to Do With Me?
Billions of dollars are spent on Nanotechnology and researchers and businessmen are seeing nanotechnology companies with rising stock prices.

Nanotechnology has the potential to fundamentally improve the human condition by giving us mastery over matter. It will allow us to arrange molecules in most of the ways that physical laws allow. This will lead to possibilities of new products, new options, and new hopes. Computers will be more powerful, materials will be incredibly light and strong, medical technology will be able to heal and cure in cases that today would be considered as completely hopeless, the environment will be safer and cleaner. Many of the material dreams of humanity can be fulfilled.

Nanotechnology has seen many advances in the past years, but that makes people ask questions about social and ethical issues that have never been challenged by science before.

Many faces of carbon
Nano Products
More fun with Nano Products!
Merta, Ed. "THE NANOTECHNOLOGY AGENDA:." The Nanotechnology Agenda. University of New Mexico, n.d. Web. 07 May 2014.
"Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties." Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties. Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004. Web. 07 May 2014.
"Nanotechnology: Dangers of Molecular Manufacturing." Nanotechnology: Dangers of Molecular Manufacturing. Center for Responsible Nanotechnology, 2008. Web. 07 May 2014.
Sutcliffe, Hilary. "All about Nano & Me." Nano & Me. Responsible Nano Forum, n.d. Web. 07 May 2014.
"Recycling Nanoparticles." Recycling Nanoparticles. University of Bristol, 19 Apr. 2010. Web. 08 May 2014.
Mudd, Karina. "Will Nanotechnology Help or Hurt Our Environment?" Care2. N.p., 31 July 2009. Web. 08 May 2014.
"Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties." Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 May 2014.

What is Nano?
Nanotechnology is another way of creating useful inventions. They use molecules and atoms to make things in our world.

Computing and Electronics
Cosmetics and Sunscreen
will not fundamentally change technology, but will make it faster, cheaper, and with more memory
2008 Nobel Prize in Physics: discoverers of GMR (giant magneto resistance)
paved the way for the 100-gigabyte hard drive
Computer chips w/ more transistors for processing power
smaller & smaller= technical difficulties
however faster processing speeds- better phones/computers
Carbon nanotubes= better color, contrast, and definition on screens
also more thin/flexible
Improved batteries w/ longer life span; also faster charging
concrete= partly made up of silica
nano particles added to mixture to make it more dense
more water resistant & durable
Lighter, stronger materials that last longer, are easier to work with, and are better at resisting shocks
beneficial for buildings ex. in the case of an earthquake
sensors using nanotechnologies can be embedded into materials to sense if damaged/stressed; also to monitor temp.
What makes Nano Special
sunscreen: TiO2 and ZnO block harmful UV light
if break these substances into nano-sized particles, become transparent; better sunscreen
Silver nanoparticles used to kill bacteria esp. in soaps, deodorant, hairbrushes, and other cosmetic equipment
also reduce static ex. in curling irons
Liposomes/nanosomes: improve solubility of moisturizers, also add shimmer
hold/deliver active ingredients
Nano emulsions blend unblendable solutions
so fine they can be sprayed on in high concentrations
Nano gold: healing/antioxidant properties ex. fullerenes
however safety concerns
The Science Bit of Nanotechnolgy
When you work with things in the Nanoscale, they behave in different ways.
They are sometimes much stronger, or conduct more electricity, opaque substances can become transparent, solids become liquids at room temperature
* A nanometer is a millionth of a millimeter, a billionth of a meter.
What is considered Nanology-
Any technology that makes use of the properties of atoms and molecules at the nanoscale or is able to observe and manipulate at the nanoscale is a nanotechnology

Moral and Ethical Issues
How much do we really want to know now about what diseases we may get in the future? What are the implications of enhancing our minds or bodies to make us smarter or live longer?
Medical Advances with Nanotechnology
Diagnosis of illness
New effective drugs (super drugs), more accurate
Cheaper and more effective applications in GP surgeries and homes
Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer in the hope that investments in this branch of nano-medicine could lead to breakthroughs in terms of detecting, diagnosing, and treating various forms of cancer.
Molecular structures could be the basis for the regeneration or replacement of body parts that are currently lost to infection, accident, or disease.
mechanical tension that stimulates the growth and elongation of axons of the central nervous system neurons. The second method from the University of California, Berkeley uses aligned nanofibers containing one or more growth factors to provide a bioactive matrix where nerve cells can regrow.
Textile and Clothing
Lotus Effect (leaves of lotus plant bead off water through nano-sized hairs and wax coating)
Water resistant textiles: Nano coatings (such as Teflon-like substances) bond with the textile, so that little nano-sized molecular hooks attach to the fabric of the garment and the hair-like structures repel the water like the lotus leaf. These are nano-sized structures don’t make the fabric stiff, so the softness of whatever is coated is perserved.
Antibacterial textiles:
Silver nanoparticles are being included in a lot of different fabrics as anti-bacterial agents.
These silver nanoparticles are either incorporated into the fibers of the fabric, or coated on afterwards. If they are impregnated into the material then the useful effect lasts longer than if they are coated on the surface.
Nanotechnology Used in Transportation
Nanoparticles help the fuel burn better in the engine and the result is that you get more miles per gallon.
Less effluent (pollution) coming out of the exhaust pipe.
Engine does not need servicing as often because the engine stays cleaner.
Cars using nanotechnology to become lighter and stronger
Nano makes airplanes lighter and stronger, by creating new materials which can replace the heavier parts that are used more commonly.
Lighter planes require much less fuel, money saved
Adding nanoparticles to aluminum in fuels increases fuel mileage
Similarly lighter materials cut fuel costs
Barnacle Busting Coatings
Self-Heating Roads Save Cars From Icy Conditions
Which was made by Nanotechnology.
Sports and Leisure
: Forms flat sheet in pattern like chicken mesh
Not for commercial use yet
Used for computing, sensors and coatings
: Made up of graphene sheets piled on each other & when writing, the layers are wiped on the page
: carbon atoms are bonded very tightly making it strong material & extremely hard to break

Carbon Nanotubes
: Atoms stick together to form a cylinder
are used to make things such as cars, tennis rackets or body armor
they’re conductive & can be used as delivery vessels for drugs, to make solar panels & new forms of energy storage
: Atoms stick to one another to form a ball
are used in semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, & cosmetics
Nanotechnology may provide for cheaper and more effective pollutants and viruses in water- They can dilute and disperse pollutants also.
Nanotechnology helps with renewable technology production which will be in the next slide.
Extreme compactness of nanotech machinery will attempt to use very small particles which can turn into nanolitter and infect the environment
Nanotechnology allows the improvements to batteries/ solar cells/ hydrogen cells to make fuel cells more usable.
Ex. could be woven directly into the structure of every manufactured object on Earth, providing an effectively limitless source of clean energy for technological civilization
Nanotech is behind the creation of lighter weight and much stronger materials for use in lots of different sports.
Nanotech creates plastic materials containing carbon nanotubes to make them extremely strong, but also very light.
Used in the linings of footballs and tennis balls as barrier materials which retain the pressure in the ball for longer.
Food and Drink
Paint and Coating
There are ethical concerns about the dangers of nanotechnology. There are debates on whether nanotechnology is morally right and how it might affect human life. (potentially putting it in danger?) There are also other concerns with this type of science that makes it a very controversial topic.

Social policy and law always lag behind science because it is hard to keep up with scientific advances.
Many contemplate about how nano could enhance the food we eat
Including better ways to add flavors, add texture, or strengthen nutritional benefits
small use of nano in food in the UK
Uses include wrapping nutritional ingredients for better absorption in food
enhancing existing foods over creating new materials
Milk: example of a nanotechnology small particles of protein suspended in water
"Regulators suffer more criticism when a new drug causes a single death than they do when the absence of a new drug causes a thousand deaths.”
Barnacle busting paints were huge success
Algae and barnacles wouldn't stick to paint on boats, saving money for cleaning
Could be anti-graffiti, anti-mist, & could block UV light
US Navy uses nano coats for the surfaces of capacitors
Barrier Protection
Nanomaterials used as filler material in plastic
Could make beer in plastic bottles because the gas won't escape
Packaging Reduction
Clays are added to production to reduce amount of plastic
Clays: small platelets when forced apart by water, have slippery effect
when put in plastics- plastic forces clay platelets apart + gives larger exposed surface area - enables strength of plastic to be retained when less used
Silver nanoparticles are coated on plastic packs in food storage boxes used in homes
prevent food going off
Protective Coating: intention keeping food fresh + flavoursome, blocking rays of sun
Why should we care?
Nanotechnology Applications in Other Fields of life
Michael Phelps wore a sharkskin swim-suit that beaded off water particles (lotus effect)
Other sports equipment also enhanced: Running shoes, tennis racquets, golf balls etc.
Raises questions about cheating
Nanotechnology in Dangerous enviornments
Textiles in space, war, fire etc.
Silver nanoparticles are antibacterial, platinum and palladium decompose harmful gases/toxic chemicals
Nano: A Helping Hand
Nanotechnology could work miracles for our environment; it may provide new ways to reduce pollution as well as our ecological footprint. Nanosilver, which kills microbes, may help clean up oil spills and other harmful chemicals. Also, Nanotechnology may filter and clean dirty or salty water in a cheap and efficient manner, which has huge implications for many parts of the developing world.

Downside to Nano
Nanosilver, for example, can be very toxic. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deemed it a pesticide under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Nano waste
With some nano particles being worth more than gold, being able to recycle them would be very efficient and cost saving
Recovering and recycling nano particles is difficult because of the complex mixture they make with other substances that are hard to separate.
Nanoparticles make the air explosive and are extremely difficult to detect-the smaller the particles, the more severe the explosion
Along with the many doors that nanotechnology opens, there are also downsides to this science:
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