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Short Story Elements

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by

Mrs. Aide

on 8 September 2016

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Transcript of Short Story Elements

Fiction
describes
imaginary/made-up
events or characters. Anything can happen.

Ex. Poems, stories, novels, plays, etc.
Nonfiction vs. Fiction
Plot
The life cycle of a story.

Consists of:
Exposition
Rising action
Climax
Falling action
Resolution
Setting
* Time and place the story takes place
* Uses characters' thoughts, words, and
description to depict setting
*Uses
dialect
(language specific to a certain
area) to depict setting
Ex. Ya'll = the South (dialect)
N-word = pre-Civil Rights Movement
Poodle skirts and letter sweaters: 50's

Short Story Elements
Nonfiction
is literature that describes
real
events and characters (people) that have
actually occurred
.
Ex. Articles from newspapers and magazines, auto/iographies
, textbooks
Setting can also:
1. create conflict
for a character if they struggle against it

(battling the sea)
and setting can...
2. impact character

development
Where a character comes from may be necessary to understand them
Especially early in the story, settings can...
3. create
mood
(atmosphere created through
diction
(word choice) of the author
Ex. author will create a creepy, spooky mood by describing the
setting
:
"The
biting
mountain air
slithered
across my neck with every step."
Characterization
An author develops character through
descriptions
dialogue with another person (" ")
actions
interactions with others
thoughts (sometimes indicated via
italics
)
discussions
Indirect Characterization
A character is described through dialogue, actions, speaking, looks and dress, inner thoughts/feelings
what other characters think and say about a character

***A reader has to
infer (figure out)
what the above shows about a character***
Direct Characterization
A description is CLEARLY STATED.
NO INFERENCE IS NEEDED
Round vs Flat
Round
: character has a lot of descriptions and dimensions to his/her character

Flat
: Very few descriptions, one dimensional
Ex. Dumb Jock
Static vs. Dynamic
Static
: a character who does
not
undergo an important change to their understanding or personality


Dynamic
: experiences
change
to their understanding and personality by the end of the story
Irony
Feeling lead-on to believe or expect one thing, yet the opposite occurs.
Conflict
The problem in a story

Used to:
develop plot (no story if nothing to resolve)
enhance and develop characters
make the story engaging and realistic
Symbolism
Everyday objects that could represent something
in addition to
themselves.

Ex. The flag symbolizes: freedom, justice, unity, etc.

Some symbols are specific to a story Ex. a bird in the story "Initiation" symbolizes conformity whereas it most likely wouldn't in a different story)
Other symbols are more constant and mean the same thing in any story
Ex. Spring = rebirth, growth, hope
Timing/Pacing
What does timing/pacing do for a story?

1. adds suspense
2. add important details
3. has a direct impact on the
plot and how the story unfolds
Author's Purpose
to inform
to entertain
to persuade
to demonstrate
to comment on a topic
to protest etc.

Why is it important to identify the author's purpose?

1. to determine what they are trying to tell you
2. to determine their opinions or bias about a topic
3. it helps unlock the deeper meaning of the text
Theme
A statement about life that can be taken
from the story.

It is more than an idea: love, frienship, greed

It is not a lesson or piece of advice.

It simply just is what happens:

Ex. People make tough choices for the ones they love.

How do I identify a theme?
Look at the main conflict. What topics or issues keep coming up in the story because of it?


Figurative Language
Language not taken literally,
but used to add interesting,
relateable details to the story
to help the reader
understand and connect with
actions, setting, conflict, characters, etc.
POV is the
vantage point
or location from which the story is being told.

Why identify it?

You will know who the narrator is and determine his/her reliability.

If he is first person limited, we only find out things from his point of view and no one else's.
Thus, we only get his side of the story, which can be biased.

Ex. Nick, in
The Great Gatsby
Point of View (POV)
First Person POV
One of the characters IN the story is the narrator.
We get his/her opinions
We see the story through his/her eyes
Look for
: I, me, my, our

Second Person POV
Narrator speaks to the readers
Says "you" or "we" but is talking to the reader/audience, not a character
Third Person Limited
Narrator plays no part in story
Focuses on one character
Uses "s/he" "they" but focuses on one (usually main)
Omniscient POV - (all-knowing)
Narrator knows everything (thoughts, feelings, etc.) about EVERY character
POV can jump from character to character
Can jump from past to present and back
NOT a character in the story
Uses "s/he" "they"
Limited Omniscient
All-knowing about only ONE character
NOT a character in the story
Uses "s/he" "they"
Exposition
the start of the story

Meet characters
Establish setting
Interpret mood
Establish conflict
Narrative hook: conflict increases and story becomes exciting as a result
Rising Action
Main character learns about his/herself
Conflict builds and more are occurring
Climax
Emotional high point of the story
Tense, exciting, confusing (at times)
Main conflict is faced
Falling Action
The "wrap up"
Everything has been or is being resolved
Story is drawing to a close
Main conflict is over
Resolution
The final part of the story
Struggles are completely over
We know what is happening to the characters
"The End"
Sensory Language/
Imagery
Appeals to your senses
smell, sight, sound, touch, taste

Makes the reader able to picture the scene (
imagery
) because it's so detailed and relatable
Simile
Ex. The cold slime dripped slowly through her hair.
Comparing two unlike things using "like" or "as"
Ex. Candice bounces from friend to friend
like
a honeybee to a flower.
Metaphor
Comparing two unlike things WITHOUT using "like" or "as" (one thing
is
the other)
Ex. Janet
was
a fox, sneaking into the
night.
Personfication
Giving human-like qualities to non-human objects
Ex. The leaves
danced
in the
wind.
The sea smacked its lips as it prepared to
swallow
the sandcastle whole.
Idiom
An expression that means something other than its literal meaning
Ex. Their tongues were tied.
It will be a trial by fire situation.
Alliteration
Repetition of the same or very similar consonant SOUNDS (not letters!) at the beginning of words that are close together
Ex.
Ch
ris came to
c
ricket practice with thirst-
qu
enching
K
ool-aid.
Onomatopoeia
the use of a word whose sound imitates its meaning
Cha-ching!
Poppety-pop-pop
Buzz
Clank
Internal vs. External Conflict
Internal
takes place within a character
(usually doubt, confusion, insecurity)

External
means the character has a conflict/problem with someone/something outside of him/herself.
Type of Conflict:
Person vs. Self
Character faces conflict within his/her own body (usually emotional)
Type of Conflict:
Person vs. Person
Character is having difficulty with another character.
Type of Conflict:
Person vs. Society
Character is not belonging or fitting into what his/her society expects of him/her
Type of Conflict:
Person vs. Nature
Character is struggling with the weather or outside setting.
fighting with nature (tree falls on character)
struggling with setting/nature (survival on an island)
Type of Conflict:
Person vs. Fate
Character tries to make something happens and continuously fails.

Ex. Character tries to be a movie star but keeps waking up late for auditions, etc.
Verbal Irony
A character
SAYS
one thing but means another.

Ex. "Nice haircut," said Bry, with a roll of the eyes.
(In reality, she hates it)
Situational Irony
A contrast between what would be expected to
happen
and what actually does happen.

Ex. We expect the prince to rescue a beautiful princess, but there is an ugly ogre in her place.
Dramatic Irony
The
audience knows
something that the characters in the story don't.
Ex. We see the killer hiding under the bed.
Flashback
When the flow of the story is interrupted and jumps back into the past to show important details and key moments
PAY ATTENTION!!
Ex. Millicent's story has a flashback to show how she came to be in the basement during initiation.
Flashforward
The story jumps forward into the future
Could be minutes, hours, years, decades, etc.

Ex. We see a young freshman being laughed at by his prospective homecoming date moments before he asks her.
Suspense
a feeling of
intensity
an audience gets as they are awaiting the outcome of certain events.
Ex. the slow-motion shot of a basketball on its ascend to the hoop in a last-second shot.
Foreshadowing
Hints
an author puts in the story to suggest what is going to happen later.

Ex. In the movie, Frozen, the opening the men sing a song in which the lyrics tell the audience "beware the frozen heart."
Tone
Tone is the
author's attitude
about a subject shown through descriptions, connotations (emotions that come up when a word is mentioned), and
diction
.
You can identify an author's purpose through the tone s/he uses in his/her writing.
Diction
Word choice
Dog
Wealthy
Honest
Slender

Mutt
Rich
Unfiltered
Skinny
Positive
Negative
S
ynonym
A word that means the
s
ame
as another word.
Ex. annoyed ... perturbed
Antonym
A word that means the
opposite
of another words
Ex. exciting ... boring
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