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The Body in Motion - Focus 2
Transcript of The Body in Motion - Focus 2
The Body in Motion - Focus 2
Health-related components of physical fitness
Skill-related components of physical fitness
Aerobic and anaerobic training
Immediate physiological responses to training
Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness
Aerobic and Anaerobic Training
Health-related Components of Physical Fitness
Cardiorespiratory endurance or aerobic endurance is a measure of the ability of a person’s lungs, heart and blood vessels to supply oxygen to the working muscles of the body; it also refers to the ability of the working muscles and other organs to utilise this oxygen. Cardiorespiratory endurance can make a significant impact on daily living because without it a person will commonly experience feelings of tiredness and fatigue.
The five health-related components of fitness are so categorised because of their importance to a person’s general level of health. Each component plays an important part in developing an overall sense of wellness and wellbeing.
These fitness components can be seen as an extension of the health-related components of fitness because they tend to be more related to human athletic performance than the everyday health needs of an individual.
Muscular strength is the ability of muscles to apply force to an object; it contributes to a person’s health by enabling them to participate in life without feelings of muscular tiredness and fatigue. Strength is also important when participating in physical activity and is particularly significant in team games like rugby league. Strength can be applied in a variety of ways depending on the sport or even the specific game situation in which the athlete finds them. Strength is also a major component of power.
Muscular endurance is defined as the ability of the muscles to perform repeated contractions against a load or resistance. In any single day some muscles may contact countless numbers of times in activities such as walking. The ability to keep going without muscle fatigue is important to overall health. The level of resistance that muscles have to work against is an important feature in determining muscular endurance. A person who continually walks up hills or trains muscles using lots of repetitions with light weights may build up high levels of muscular endurance.
Flexibility is the range of motion around a joint and can make an important contribution to the way people feel. Stiffness and tightness in joints can limit an individual’s freedom of movement and contribute to injury of bones, tendons and muscles. Flexibility decreases with age, but can be maintained with regular exercise and stretching routines. Good flexibility aids in mobility and helps to reduce the chances of muscle fibre tears and ligament strains. While maintaining flexibility is important in daily life, it has a particular significance in some sports.
The balance between fat, muscle and other
components is important for health and wellbeing. The body needs a certain level of fat for metabolism and energy storage, but if a person has too much fat (or adipose tissue) it can impair their fitness levels and impact on their overall status of health. There are genetic differences in the body composition of males and females, there is strong evidence that females with over 20% body fat and males with over 10% body fat are at significant health risk. Poor body composition has been linked to conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and many forms of cancer.
Muscular power can be defined as the ability to exert maximum force in the shortest possible time. It is the combination of strength and speed. Can you think of sporting activities that require power?
Speed can be defined as the ability of the muscles to contract quickly. This translates into fast movement of body parts. An individual’s speed is often determined by the muscle fibre they are born with. Human beings have a combination of fast-twitch muscle fibres and slow-twitch fibres. There is a strong genetic influence on an athlete’s speed. An athlete who was born with a high percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibres has the genetic potential to be quicker than an athlete who has a high percentage of slow-twitch muscle fibres. Speed can be improved with training, but this will be the result of improving technique and skill, which improves muscle memory. Often better results and times will be misinterpreted as increases in speed; whereas increased strength gains are actually making the athlete more powerful.
Agility is the ability to change direction or body positions quickly while still maintaining balance. Agility contains a number of skill-related components. Power, speed, balance, coordination and even reaction time are important components of agility. Most team sports that focus on space and possession require athletes to be agile. Can you think of specific instances where agility is a dominant requirement in sporting activity?
Coordination is the result of the interaction between the body’s sense of perception and the central nervous system. A good level of coordination results in movements that appear to be smooth and flowing. Movements can be practised so that the neural pathways between the brain and body parts are established, which lead to learnt movement memory patterns. Once these movement patterns have been established, the athlete can concentrate on piecing other areas of the skill or movement together. Different sports and activities may require different types of coordination. Can you think of examples?
Balance is the ability of the body to maintain its equilibrium. Equilibrium is lost when a person falls over or loses control of their body parts momentarily. Balance is an important component of both agility and coordination. Balance can be static or dynamic. Static balance is when the body’s equilibrium is held in a fixed or stationary position. Dynamic balance is when an athlete can maintain their equilibrium while moving. Balance is very significant in activities where the environment in which the movement is performed is unpredictable. Some examples of activities where dynamic balance is required are surfing and water skiing.
Reaction time is the time it takes to react to an external stimulus. The external stimulus could be a starting gun or whistle but could be a ball pitched or bowled at a batter in softball, cricket or baseball. Skilled athletes develop good reaction times and may also possess some inherent skill in this area. A combination of factors such as speed and perceptual ability contribute to strong reaction times.
The development of both the health-related and skill-related components of fitness will improve efficiency of movement, and should therefore improve overall performance. Consider the example of a touch football player who has great aerobic endurance, allowing the player to run hard all day, but cannot pass or catch a ball very well. This player’s overall performance would benefit from developing the skill-related components of fitness.
There are many reasons for measuring physical fitness. They include to:
Make comparisons with others
Develop accurate training programs
Set realistic, achievable fitness goals
Identify baseline and follow-up fitness levels
Assess individual strengths and weaknesses
Identify medical problems
Motivate to improve results
Measuring Components of Physical Fitness
Out of Interest........
Cristiano Ronaldo - Tested To The Limit
Think of The FITT principle as a set of rules that must be adhered to in order to benefit from any form of fitness training program.
These rules relate to the Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time (FITT) of exercise...
These four principles of fitness training are applicable to individuals exercising at low to moderate training levels and may be used to establish guidelines for both aerobic and resistance training.
Following any form of fitness training, the body goes through a process of rebuild and repair to replenish its energy reserves consumed by the exercise. The frequency of exercise is a fine balance between providing just enough stress for the body to adapt to and allowing enough time for healing and adaptation to occur...
The guidelines for aerobic training are a minimum of three sessions per week and ideally five or six sessions per week.
Experts suggest that little or no benefit is attained over and above this amount. Of course athletes often fall outside the suggested guidelines but even elite performers must give themselves time to rest.
The frequency of resistance training is dependent upon the particular individual and format of the program. For example, a program that works every body part every session should be completed 3-4 days a week with a day's rest between sessions.
On the other hand, a program that focuses on just one or two body parts per session, in theory you could be completed as frequently as six days per week. Many bodybuilders follow such a routine.
Remember though, each time you complete a strenuous strength training session (regardless of the body part) you are taxing your body as a whole - including all the physiological systems and major organs.
The second rule in the FITT principle relates to intensity. It defines the amount of effort that should be invested in a training program or any one session. Like the first FITT principle - frequency - there must be a balance between finding enough intensity to overload the body (so it can adapt) but not so much that it causes overtraining.
Heart rate can be used to measure the intensity of cardiorespiratory training. Workload is used to define the intensity of resistance training.
Heart rate is the primary measure of intensity in aerobic endurance training. Ideally before you start an aerobic training program a target heart rate zone should first be determined. The target heart rate zone is a function of both your fitness level and age. Here's a quick method for determining your target heart rate...
Heart Rate & Maximum Heart Rate
Heart rate is measured as beats per minute (bpm). Heart rate can be monitored and measured by taking your pulse at the wrist, arm or neck. An approximation of maximum heart rate (MHR) can also be calculated as follows: MHR = 220 - age.
Target Heart Rate
For beginners a target heart rate zone of 50-70% of their maximum of heart rate is a good place to start. So if, for example, you are 40 years old that gives you a predicted maximum heart rate of 180 (220 - 40). Multiply 180 by 50% and 70% and your reach a target zone of 90bpm - 126bpm.
For fitter, more advanced individuals, a target heart rate zone of 70-85% of their maximum of heart rate may be more appropriate. Staying with the example above, that 40 year old now has a heart rate zone of 126bpm - 153bpm.
There are limitations with heart rate and the heart rate reserve method, while no means flawless, may be a more accurate way to determine exercise intensity.
For resistance training, workload is the primary measure of intensity. Workload can have three components:
1, The amount of weight lifted during an exercise
2. The number of repetitions completed for a particular exercise
3. The length of time to complete all exercises in a set or total training session
So, you can increase workload by lifting heavier weights. Or you could increase the number of repetitions with the same weight. Finally, you could lift the same weight for the same number of repetitions but decrease the rest time between sets. However, only increase the intensity using one of the above parameters. Do not increase weight and decrease rest time in the same session for example.
The third component in the FITT principle dictates what type or kind of exercise you should choose to achieve the appropriate training response...
Using the FITT principle, the best type of exercise to tax or improve the cardiovascular system should be continuous in nature and make use of large muscle groups. Examples include running, walking, swimming, dancing, cycling, aerobics classes, circuit training, cycling, etc.
This is fairly obvious too. The best form of exercise to stress the muscular system is resistance training. But resistance training does not necessarily mean lifting weights. Resistance bands could be used as an alternative or perhaps a circuit training session that only incorporates body weight exercises.
The next component in the FITT principle of training is time - or how long you should be exercising for. Is longer better?
Individuals with lower fitness levels should aim to maintain their heart rate within the target heart rate zone for a minimum of 20-30 minutes. This can increase to as much as 45-60 minutes as fitness levels increase.
Beyond the 45-60 minute mark there are diminished returns. For all that extra effort, the associated benefits are minimal.
This also applies to many athletes. Beyond a certain point they run the risk of over-training and injury. There are exceptions however - typically the ultra-long distance endurance athletes.
In terms of the duration of the program as a whole, research suggests a minimum of 6 weeks is required to see noticeable improvement and as much as a year or more before a peak in fitness is reached.
The common consensus for the duration of resistance training session is no longer than 45-60 minutes. Again, intensity has a say and particularly gruelling strength sessions may last as little as 20 - 30 minutes.
Perhaps the most important principle of training (that ironically doesn't have its own letter in the FITT principle) is rest. Exercising too frequently and too intensely hinders the body's ability to recover and adapt. As a rule of thumb, the harder you train, the more recovery you should allow for. Unfortunately many athletes don't have that luxury!
Derives energy from the aerobic energy system (with oxygen)
Requires an aerobic foundation
Oxygen is required to contribute to the production of energy
Able to exercise for longer without fatigue and to recover more quickly during rest periods
Movements are sustained and of low to moderate intensity
Used by athletes who require endurance, but is the foundation for all athletic performance
Movement continues for 90 seconds or more
Examples include 1500m swimming and marathon running
Derives energy from the anaerobic energy system (without oxygen)
Energy is produced in the absence of oxygen, or where insufficient oxygen is delivered to working muscles
Exercise is shorter, sharper and more intense
Usually puts body under great stress
Training does not allow for full recovery between bouts of work
Used by athletes in strength and power activities
Movement lasts for 2 minutes or less
Examples include long jumping, throwing a discus, high jump and 100m sprint
Responses to Training
with exercise, and in accordance with the
intensity of our exercise effort.
Initially heart rate
. This is referred to as
. For an unfit person, heart rate will
continue to rise gradually
as exercise is prolonged.
Cessation will cause
a quick decline in heart rate
, followed by a slower decline as it
returns to pre-exercise level
. The fitter you are the
quicker heart rate returns to resting level
Refers to our
depth and rate of breathing and is expressed in breaths per minute
When we begin exercise,
the demand for more oxygen by the muscle cells causes a ventilation response
During rest, we breath about
12 breaths per minute
The anticipation of exercise
causes a moderate increase in rate an depth of breathing as the body’s nervous activity heightens
Once exercise starts,
the rate and depth of breathing intensifies
This is matched by an
increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, triggering elevated respiratory activity
At the end of exercise,
breathing remains rapid for a short period of time, then gradually abates, finally returning to resting levels
The amount of
blood ejected by the left ventricle of the heart during a contraction
It is measured in
This increases during exercise with
most of the increase being evident as the person progresses from rest to moderate exercise intensity
As intensity increases
to a high level, there is less change in stroke volume
Is determined by the ability to:
fill the ventricles by blood volume
to empty the ventricles as a result of ventricular contraction
The amount of
blood pumped by the heart per minute
with exercise the same way as stroke volume
The working muscles demand
for additional oxygen causes the blood flow to be redistributed within the body
At rest, CO for trained and untrained people
is approximately five litres per minute
Even though stoke volume is larger, trained athletes generally have lower resting heart rates
- Untrained people can
increase CO to around 20 – 22 litres per minute
- Highly trained people can
increase CO to around 35 – 40 litres per minute
CO = HR x SV
Lactate is a chemical
formed during the breakdown of carbohydrates in the absence of sufficient oxygen
There is always a small
amount of lactate circulating in the blood
Lactic Acid (LA) concentrations increase as
the workload is increased
The lactate threshold:
a point beyond which a given power output cannot be maintained
- Is characterised by
lactic acid accumulation and decreased time to fatigue
- Occurs at approximately
80 – 90% of MHR
Heart rate v exercise....
How the body responds to exercise....