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Multiple Interpretations of the Text

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Jodi Allan

on 9 November 2016

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Transcript of Multiple Interpretations of the Text

Multiple Interpretations of the Text
HAMLET, Prince of Denmark
English 12:
Write down this habit in your WNB:
Readers apply what they know about an author and the time period in which a piece was written to comprehend fiction and predict story details.
BUILDING CONTEXT FOR READING
I. The Author's Life and Times
Take notes!
You are responsible for knowing this material.
William Shakespeare
154 Sonnets
1564- 1616
Eldest, Susanna,
plus twins, Judith and Hamnet.
Their mother is Anne Hathaway...
Not her...
maybe her
Shakespeare invented almost 3000 words and phrases, "eyeball" and "swagger,"
to name a few.
All in Iambic Pentameter
(lesson on that to come later!)
He was 18, she was 26 when they married.
Susanna was born 6 months later.
You can do the math.
The family spent a lot of time alone, in Stratford, while Billie was off acting and writing (in London).

In his will, Shakespeare left Anne his "second best bed." Hmm. Odd.

His fortune, he left to Susanna--presumably because she was married, so she had a man to manage the money (totally typical for the time period).
Scientists create 3D model of Shakespeare's head
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1309047/Shakespeares-face-recreated-3D-scientists-got-right-man.html
"The Bard"
(or Billy Shakes, as I like to call him)
Susanna had three children, all of whom died before marrying.
Judith had a daughter, too, who married twice, but never had kids.
Her death ended Shakespeare's direct line.


(Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear, | To dig the dust enclosed here. | Blessed be the man that spares these stones, | And cursed be he that moves my bones.)
On His Tomb:
Shakespeare...
Considered himself a poet.

He was also an actor in a troupe called The Chamberlain's Men (later, the King's Men).

He was part owner of The Globe Theatre.

His cause of death, "is a mystery, but an entry in the diary of John Ward, the vicar of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford (where Shakespeare is buried), tells us that
'Shakespeare, Drayton, and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting and it seems drank too hard, for Shakespeare died of a fever there contracted.'
It should be noted though that a serious outbreak of typhus, known as the 'new fever', in 1616 (the year Shakespeare died), lends credibility to Ward's story.

In a world where plague, syphilis, typhus, scurvy, tuberculosis, smallpox, malaria, dysentery and toothaches shortened a Londoner's life expectancy to thirty-five years, Shakespeare fared quite well, leading a relatively long and healthy life (Mabillard).
The Globe Theatre
Built 1597
Disaster struck the Globe June 29, 1613
It caught fire and burned down during the play Henry VIII
It has been rebuilt (you can visit it and see a play today!)
Queen Elizabeth I loved the theatre and the arts
Rich and poor, alike, attended plays
Rich sat in the upper "nose bleed" seats
People in cheap seats were called groundlings,
and they stood at ground/stage level
The Elizabethan Era
Why is it called this?
This lady is Queen Elizabeth I
Also known as the virgin queen
(only because she never married...it was better for politics, maybe, for her to be "available" to suitors from other countries.
Color coding was used to advertise the type of play to be performed - a black flag meant a tragedy , white a comedy and red a history.
Many Londoners were strict Protestants - Puritans in fact, who abhorred the theatres
In 1596 London's authorities banned the public presentation of plays and all theatres within the city limits of London
All theaters located in the City were forced to move to the South side of the River Thames
It's a good thing the Queen loved the theatre!
Religion:
While Mary I was on the throne, Catholicism was the national religion, and Protestants were persecuted
When Queen Liz took the throne, Church of England became the official religion

She was queen from 1558 until her death in 1603
Her reign is known as the Elizabethan Era,
one in which the arts flourished
Hamnet died at age 11
Why Shakespeare Matters
6:46
SESSION TWO
Attributes of a
TRAGIC HERO
1. Born a noble birth:


2. Responsible for own fate:


3. Has a tragic flaw:


4. Doomed to make a serious error in judgment:


5. Falls from great heights or from high esteem:


6. Realizes he has made an irreversible mistake:


7. Faces and accepts death with honor
Videos and Images
Essential Questions:


How does Shakespeare develop characters that reveal something about us as humans?


How does understanding the genre help in comprehending a centuries-old text?

• How do visual versions of the play differ from the written one? How do the subtext cues (e.g., props, volume, tone, staging) help or hinder our understanding of the character?

Life Of William Shakespeare
5:36
Shakespearean drama follows the
Aristotelian dramatic structure
.


Text Collection and Strategic Reading Focus by Act
Act I
(Exposition) Find key lines and passages that reveal setting, tone, characters, conflict
Multi-draft reading to: (1) get the gist, (2) become acquainted with Elizabethan language, and (3) notice elements of dramatic exposition

Act II
(Rising Action) Find key lines and passages that reveal the building conflict
Close reading of soliloquies/ Comparative text (view or listen to various soliloquies to make judgments about author’s purpose)

Act III
(Climax) Find key lines that reveal the turning point in the play
Close reading of soliloquies/ Comparative text (view or listen to various soliloquies to make judgments about author’s purpose)

Act IV
(Falling Action) Find key lines that reveal the complications that will lead the character to the final tragedy
Comparative text (view or listen to various soliloquies to make judgments about author’s purpose)

Act V
(Denouement) Find key lines that reveal the character’s tragic flaw
Comparative text (view or listen to various soliloquies to make judgments about author’s purpose)

Important Soliloquies for Study
Act 1, scene 2 “O, that this too too sullied flesh would melt”
Act 1, scene 5 “O all you host of heaven”
Act 2, scene 2 “ O what a rogue and peasant slave am I”
Act 3, scene 1 “To be or not to be…”
Act 3, scene 2 “’Tis now the very witching time of night”
Act 3, scene 3 “ Now I might do it pat now he is praying”
Act 4, scene 4 “How all occasions do inform against me”

Multiple Interpretations
Scene(s) Adaptation(s)
3.1 “Nunnery” scene Hamlet, Dir. Laurence Olivier (1948 film, starring Laurence Olivier) CHOOSE 3-4
Hamlet, Dir. Franco Zeffirelli (1990 film, starring Mel Gibson)
Hamlet, Dir. Kenneth Branagh (1996 film, starring Kenneth Branagh)
Hamlet, Dir. Campbell Scott (2000 film, starring Campbell Scott)
Hamlet, Dir. Michael Almereyda (2000 film, starring Ethan Hawke)

3.2 “The Mousetrap” scene Hamlet, Dir. Laurence Olivier (1948 film, starring Laurence Olivier) CHOOSE 3-4
Hamlet, Dir. Franco Zeffirelli (1990 film, starring Mel Gibson)
Hamlet, Dir. Kenneth Branagh (1996 film, starring Kenneth Branagh)
Hamlet, Dir. Campbell Scott (2000 film, starring Campbell Scott)
Hamlet, Dir. Michael Almereyda (2000 film, starring Ethan Hawke)

3.4 “Mother’s Closet” scene Hamlet, Dir. Laurence Olivier (1948 film, starring Laurence Olivier)
CHOOSE 3-4
Hamlet, Dir. Franco Zeffirelli (1990 film, starring Mel Gibson)
Hamlet, Dir. Kenneth Branagh (1996 film, starring Kenneth Branagh)
Hamlet, Dir. Campbell Scott (2000 film, starring Campbell Scott)
Hamlet, Dir. Michael Almereyda (2000 film, starring Ethan Hawke)

4.5“Ophelia’s Mad Scene” Hamlet, Dir. Laurence Olivier (1948 film, starring Laurence Olivier) CHOOSE 3-4
Hamlet, Dir. Franco Zeffirelli (1990 film, starring Mel Gibson)
Hamlet, Dir. Kenneth Branagh (1996 film, starring Kenneth Branagh)
Hamlet, Dir. Campbell Scott (2000 film, starring Campbell Scott)
Hamlet, Dir. Michael Almereyda (2000 film, starring Ethan Hawke)

Habit:
Readers identify various purposes for their reading.
They explore multi-draft reading strategies and collecting text methods.
How is the structure of a drama important to revealing character?
"The word theatre comes from the Greeks. It means the seeing place. It is the place people come to see the truth about life and the social situation. The theatre is a spiritual and social X-ray of its time. The theatre was created to tell people the truth about life and the social situation." - Stella Adler

Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy

“According to Aristotle, tragedies where the outcome depends on a tightly constructed cause-and-effect chain of actions, are superior to those that depend primarily on the character and personality of the protagonist.” His ideal plot structure for tragic plays followed a very predictable 5-Act structure. The following illustrates the function of each act. Readers of Shakespeare should use their knowledge of this Aristotelian dramatic structure as a strategy to comprehend his plays.

Plot
Aristotle felt that the action of the play (its plot) was most important.
He said,

“All human happiness or misery takes the form of action....Character gives us qualities, but it is in our
actions--what we do--that we are happy or miserable.”

Character
Character is the second most important element of tragedy. Each character has an essential quality or nature that is
revealed in the plot. The moral purpose of each character must be clear to the audience.

The characters should have four main qualities:
A. No matter who they are (hero or slave), the characters must be good in some way.

B. The characters should act appropriately for their gender and station in life.

C. The characters have to have believable personalities.

D. Each character must act consistently throughout the play. In other words, nothing should be done or said that could be seen as “acting out of character.”
ACT I
ACT II
ACT III
ACT IV
ACT V
Exposition
Rising Action
Climax
Falling Action
Denouement
The first act establishes the characters, setting, tone, and conflict.
The second act establishes the building conflict.

The third act reveals the climax of the play. The protagonist’s situation goes from bad to worse. The protagonist’s tragic flaw(s) become obvious.
The fourth act typically includes a series of events that lead the protagonist to the tragic end.

The fifth act of a dramatic tragedy ends with a catastrophe in which the protagonist is worse off than at the beginning of the narrative.
Bookmarking for the duration of the play:
Based on this structure,
What do we predict we will learn in Act 1?
SESSION 2.2
Let's start with the opening scene of the play.
We will do a round-robin reading.
Remembering our strategic reading foci, we will engage in inquiry methods to figure out what is happening and get accustomed to the Elizabethan language.
We should be able to figure out the tone and make predictions.
What is happening here?
What is the tone?
Review the opening lines that we read aloud and determine which seems most important in revealing
setting, tone, characters, or conflict
and record it in your notebook in the section labeled Act 1: Collecting Text.

*IDENTIFY WHAT THE LINES REVEAL (SETTING, TONE, CHARACTER, CONFLICT)
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
SCENES FOR ANALYSIS
SESSION ONE
HOMEWORK:
SESSION THREE
Turn-and-Talk:
Discuss with your partner which lines you chose and explain which element of Act 1 the choices reveal.
Readers of Shakespearean dramas use their knowledge of Aristotelian dramatic structure to discover how tone, characters, setting, and conflict create the exposition, the foundation of the play.
READ ACT I
With partner, find a section of the text where a particular tone seems especially evident (or use the scene your teacher gives you).

Do a multi-draft reading:
1. First, read the scene to get the gist of what is happening.
2. Secondly, look up unfamiliar words and re-read, gaining a deeper understanding of text.
3. Third, marking words and phrases that seem to have particular importance or that seem to have a connotative meaning that is different than their denotative meaning.
4. Finally, decide which lines should be emphasized with dramatic movement, change in volume, or use of props.
Add to Your Text Collection in WNB:
Review Act I and consider a line that reveals tone, characters, setting, or conflict.
Discuss with a partner which Act I characteristic the line reveals.

In your WNB,
record 5-10 key lines
that reveal tone, characters, setting, and conflict.

Annotate your text collection, indicating which of these Act I elements each collected line or passage reveals.


EXIT SLIP
Make predictions about what will happen in Act 2, based on their understanding of the 5-act dramatic structure.


SESSION FOUR
Readers of Shakespearean drama use close reading strategies to follow the rising action of the plot and to consider the character’s motivations.
READ ACT II

Do a multi-draft read of a key scene. First, they read for the gist. Second, they look up unfamiliar words. Third, re-read to notice the character’s attitude. Finally, read to clarify the author’s intent. Make your thinking visible.

This time, prepare to perform a key scene, marking the dramatic movements, changes in volume or intonation, and props that will enhance your portrayal of the scene.




Begin drawing a character web in your notebook, starting with the main character in the middle. (Branches lead to other characters, with descriptions of their roles.)
CHARACTER WEB
Just like we did after we read Act I...
Collect 5-10 key lines or passages in your
Writer’s Notebook that reveal the deepening conflict.
Annotate the lines.
HOMEWORK:
Write a one-page response: What seems to be the worst problem the main character is dealing with? How could this possibly be resolved? Cite key lines that show the deepening problem.
Exit Slip:
SESSION FIVE
5.1 Readers know that the climax of a 5-Act (Shakespearean) tragedy will be a place where the situation goes from bad to worse.
They make predictions about the outcome of the play.
READ ACT III
Scenes for Viewing
Multiple Interpretations of the Text
To Be or Not To Be
4:35
2:20
3:58
3:06
Act 3 Scene 1
SESSION SIX
Before Viewing:
You will re-read the key scenes before we watch film clips.
Write a THEORY about what the character is feeling in your WNB.
Write a THEORY about the author’s intent (for each scene).
Which film version depicted the scene the best? Why?
What evidence do you have from the text to support your opinion?
How does the theory you created before viewing compare to your opinion of how the character feels after viewing the film versions?
After Each Clip
glue-in
5.2 Readers know that soliloquies offer important insights into the character’s thoughts and feelings.
They engage in close reading of soliloquies to analyze the character.

Collect 5-10 key lines or passages in your WNB that reveal the events that constitute the climax.
Update the character web in your notebooks.
Use a multi-draft reading approach to read the soliloquies.
HOMEWORK
Act 3, scene 1 “To be or not to be…”
Act 3, scene 2 “’Tis now the very witching time of night”
Act 3, scene 3 “ Now I might do it pat now he is praying”
Soliloquies
Act 1, scene 2 “O, that this too too sullied flesh would melt”
Act 1, scene 5 “O all you host of heaven”
3.1 “Nunnery” scene
3.2 “The Mousetrap” scene
3.4 “Mother’s Closet” scene
Just Because...
CZ3SX-5QB34
Mrs. Allan's Schoology Code
This is the version of Hamlet we use (Dover).
However, most editions should be the same.
PRE-READING
Instructions:
1. In small groups, look at Handout #1 (Wordle of the play).
This word cloud shows the words in the play that are used the most. Before reading, you will analyze this language, categorize it, and finally make some predictions about what the play will be about.

2. Handout #2. This handout has five categories: "Characters, Critical/Important Nouns, Archaic Words, Stage Directions/Locations, and Other." Depending on your backgrounds, they may be more or less familiar with terms such as "archaic words," "stage directions," and so on.

3. Place words from Handout #1 into appropriate categories on Handout#2. Depending on the students you have, you may choose to get them started by selecting a few words as a class and placing them in the appropriate category. Also, at this point that there is not a clear right or wrong answer; they are simply collaborating and offering their best guess as to where these words belong.
Iambic Pentameter: RAP
This sort of sounds like this rhythm
Welcome to the world of Iambic Pentameter!
Stand up! Let's try a few things...
https://twitter.com/pentametron
Remember syllables?
Let's try some words...

cat
uphold
basketball
banana
yesterday
window
What's in a name?...-Juliet, Hamlet, Romeo, etc.
How many syllables are in your whole name? Where is the stress in the pronunciation of your name? How might it be different?
Jot this down in your WNB
To show emphasis in a syllable we use these symbols...
I am a pirate with a wooden leg
IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Thematic Concepts in Hamlet
Revenge
Moral corruption
Appearances versus reality
Action versus inaction
Responsibility versus passion
Lies
Sex
Madness

Motifs
Decay
Ears/Hearing
Actors/theater
Remember:
A theme is a universal truth that applies to most people most of the time. What I am about to show you are thematic CONCEPTS!
mark up these examples
But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east and Juliet is the sun.
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Post two lines--written in iambic pentameter--about yourself on Schoology!

Your hopes? Your dreams? Your hobbies? What you had for lunch?
"He was not for an age, but for all time"
Ben Jonson
In your WNB, jot universal themes we often see in literature and movies
What do you SEE?
What does this make you THINK?
What does this make you FEEL?

http://www.watchknowlearn.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=29465&CategoryID=1700
Hamlet Summary
Animated Hamlet story
PBS 60 second Shakespeare Hamlet
http://www.60secondrecap.com/study-guide/william-shakespeare-hamlet-extra-credit/

60 second recap
Character
Web


Soliloquy
Act I Scene 2 (lines 129-159)
Exeunt all but HAMLET

HAMLET
O, that this too too solid flesh would melt
Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!
Or that the Everlasting had not fix'd
His canon 'gainst self-slaughter! O God! God!
How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable,
Seem to me all the uses of this world!
Fie on't! ah fie! 'tis an unweeded garden,
That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature
Possess it merely. That it should come to this!
But two months dead: nay, not so much, not two:
So excellent a king; that was, to this,
Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother
That he might not beteem the winds of heaven
Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth!
Must I remember? why, she would hang on him,
As if increase of appetite had grown
By what it fed on: and yet, within a month--
Let me not think on't--Frailty, thy name is woman!--
A little month, or ere those shoes were old
With which she follow'd my poor father's body,
Like Niobe, all tears:--why she, even she--
O, God! a beast, that wants discourse of reason,
Would have mourn'd longer--married with my uncle,
My father's brother, but no more like my father
Than I to Hercules: within a month:
Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears
Had left the flushing in her galled eyes,
She married. O, most wicked speed, to post
With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!
It is not nor it cannot come to good:
But break, my heart; for I must hold my tongue.

Enter HORATIO, MARCELLUS, and BERNARDO


Soliloquy
Act I, scene 5 (lines 99-150)

O all you host of heaven! O earth! what else?
And shall I couple hell? O, fie! Hold, hold, my heart;
And you, my sinews, grow not instant old,
But bear me stiffly up. Remember thee!
Ay, thou poor ghost, while memory holds a seat
In this distracted globe. Remember thee!
Yea, from the table of my memory
I'll wipe away all trivial fond records,
All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past,
That youth and observation copied there;
And thy commandment all alone shall live
Within the book and volume of my brain,
Unmix'd with baser matter: yes, by heaven!
O most pernicious woman!
O villain, villain, smiling, damned villain!
My tables, -- meet it is I set it down,
That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain;
At least I'm sure it may be so in Denmark:

[Writing]
So, uncle, there you are. Now to my word;
It is 'Adieu, adieu! remember me.'
I have sworn 't.



Answer the questions:
What do we learn about Hamlet in this speech?
What do the lines and arguments reveal about him?
What action do you expect to follow from the ideas considered here?

Enjambment

Caesura
End Stop
The continuation of a sentence or clause over a line-break.
A caesura is a strong pause within a line
Occurs when a line of poetry ends with a period or definite punctuation mark, such as a colon.
Mark It Up for Meaning:
What's happening?
Look up words and allusions you don't know.
Now, Mark It Up for Shifts.
Imagine Hamlet saying these lines while walking (pacing).
When he shifts in wording or emotion, or when he would alter the way he is speaking (like he would whisper or speak louder), he CHANGES DIRECTION.
Mark the enjambments, caesuras, and end stops before you decide when to shift.
Denote the shifts/change in direction with two different color highlighter.
Act 1.2 Soliloquy Explication and On Its Feet!
Get in Groups of no more that 3.
HW:
Read the rest of ACT I and make sure you have 5-10 Key Lines recorded in your WNB.
Let's get this soliloquy on its feet!

Boys will read
BLUE LINES
and girls will read
PINK LINES
Summary of Act 1.3
http://www.litcharts.com/lit/hamlet/download
First time we see Laertes and Ophelia together

Laertes is leaving for France, but gives Ophelia some "boy advice" first.
What is it?
Polonius enters. Notice that he gives advice, too-- to his son, Laertes.

What NINE (9) pieces of advice does he give (on page 17)?
Jot them down in your WNB.

He then gives ORDERS to Ophelia regarding Hamlet:
Stay away from him! Don't give your virginity to him! Men will say anything when they have the hots for a woman...so don't trust what he says.

Summary of Act 1.4
Back to the same platform outside the castle, where we started the play.
Awaiting the ghost of King Hamlet.
Current King Claudius is partying inside the castle--a disgrace to Denmark!
Ghost shows up, but won't speak-- beckons Hamlet to come hither.
Hamlet and ghost leave to talk (?). Friends warn Hamlet not to let the ghost drive him into madness. Hamlet is feeling brave, though.
Famous and thematic line is spoken by Marcellus:
Something is rotten in the state of Denmark
Why would the ghost of King Hamlet show up in ARMOR?

Turn & Talk for minute about this while I get things rolling.
Annotate the 1.5 Soliloquy!
Independent Practice:
First Draft Reading: Mark it up to find out what is happening with Hamlet.

Second Draft Reading: Mark up the poetic lines--end stops, enjambments, caesura.

Third Draft Reading: Mark the shifts you see (Hamlet's dilemma? Where he would speak more loudly or more softly? Etc.)
Multiple Interpretations of Act I
Zeffirelli
Sol. #1: 10:40-12:20
Ghost and Sol. #2: 23:52-33:31
Branagh
Sol. #1: 19:05-22:05
Ghost and Sol. #2: 38:08-47:08
Almeryda
Sol. #1: 7:55-9:47
Ghost and Sol. #2: 21:20-26:40
Scenes for Viewing
Multiple Interpretations of the Text
Before Viewing:
You will re-read/skim the key scenes before we watch film clips.
Write a THEORY about what the character is feeling in your WNB.
Write a THEORY about the author’s intent (for each scene).
Which film version depicted the scene the best? Why?
What evidence do you have from the text to support your opinion?
How does the theory you created before viewing compare to your opinion of how the character feels after viewing the film versions?
After Each Clip
glue-in
1.2 Soliloquy
Ghost Scene and 1.5 Soliloquy
Take notes while we view. This is is called CRITICAL VIEWING.
These notes will be necessary when you write your Hamlet essay.
We will refer to the plays by their DIRECTORS. The directors make many of the decisions about how the actors should portray the character, which lines should be cut, etc.
Zeffirelli 1990
Branagh 1996
Almeryda 2000
What do you notice about the end stops, enjambments, and caesuras?
What is a "pernicious woman?"
What words are repeated?
What does he write?
What do we learn about Hamlet?
What will happen next? (predict)
Soliloquy 1.5
How should the deliver these lines?
http://apenglangghs2013.blogspot.com/2011/11/normal-0-false-false-false.html
Soliloquy 2.2 Links
Summary
http://www.litcharts.com/lit/hamlet/act-2-scene-2

The Nunnery scenes- Ophelia and Hamlet
Zeffirelli (Gibson) 45:01
Almereyda (Hawke) 49:19
Branagh- 1:36

Mousetrap play
Zeffirelli (Gibson) 1:03
Almereyda (Hawke) 52:34
Branagh- 1:47

Closet scene
Zeffirelli (Gibson) 1:17
Almereyda (Hawke) 1:02
Branagh- 2:10

Ophelia's Mad Scene
Zeffirelli (Gibson) 1:31
Almereyda (Hawke) 1:17
Branagh- Disc 2 start

Death of Ophelia
Zeffirelli (Gibson) 1:48




End fight scene
Zeffirelli (Gibson) 1:57
Simpsons
Writing about Text:
Multiple Interpretations of the text
What are the decisions script writers, directors, artists, musicians, or others make as they adapt another writer's work to capture the original author's intent and bring new and creative insights into the work?
Writers often choose to re-invent other writers' stories balancing and bringing new and creative insights into the work while maintaining the integrity and original intent of the work.

As an audience, we evaluate the quality of these interpretations by considering how effectively the interpretation maintains the author's original intent.
author's intent
claim
compare/ contrast structure
connected example paragraph
dialogue
drama
evidence
extended example paragraph
interpretation
literary device paragraph
mentor texts
parallel structure
staging
summary paragraph
Key Vocabulary
One Possible TASK
Which adaptation best captures the author’s intent? After reading a play or other piece of longer fiction and reading or viewing multiple adaptations of it, develop an argument about adaptation best captures the author’s intent.

Consider the decisions made about language, staging, set design, tone, and other elements used by the original author and the one adapting it.

Create an argument that shows the merits of one adaptation over another, considering some of those decisions. Be sure to consider some liberties the writer of the adaptation took and what effect those changes make.
Session 1: Creating Theories
Let's review our bookmarks and film notes.
Choose THREE scenes on which to focus.
Using the handout with the squares on it, jot ideas about how EACH version of Hamlet portrays the chosen scenes.
How would you define the author’s original intent about the character?

Which adaptation do you think best captures the author’s original intent about character?

Why?

What decisions did the writer who adapted the original work have to make about staging, cutting lines, minor characters or scenes, changing words, setting, etc.?

Describe how these decisions are effective.

How are these decisions better than the ones made by others who also adapted the play? What do the decisions reveal about the character?


Theories
THESIS PARAGRAPH EXAMPLES
William Shakespeare, in his play
Hamlet
, shows how a person can be sucked into a deep depression and behave in strange and even immoral ways because of the betrayal of others. Prince Hamlet learns from the ghost of his dead father that the new king, Hamlet’s uncle, killed Hamlet’s father to gain the throne and marry Hamlet’s mother. Hamlet promises to avenge his death, but is unable to act swiftly. He does not want to believe that his uncle could be a murderer, his mother could be an adulterer, or his girlfriend, Ophelia, could betray him; and yet, these seem to be true. In Kenneth Branagh’s 1996 film adaptation, he effectively highlights the psychological torment Prince Hamlet endures. Hamlet is depicted as a loving fellow who sinks to wretched behavior because of others. Compared to other film and stage adaptations, this version best shines a light on the character and his misery.
Revenge. Betrayal. Misery. These words describe Prince Hamlet in Shakespeare’s play
Hamlet
. He swears to avenge his father’s death, but is troubled by the moral implications and sinks into a deep depression. Shakespeare creates a story of crushing betrayals and a main character who struggles to cast off his original ideas of comfort, friendship, and love to seek vengeance for others’ cruelty. Many film and stage directors have tried to interpret Shakespeare’s intent about why Hamlet is the way he is. Is he a self-
absorbed whiner? A lunatic? A victim? Kenneth Branagh, in his 1996 film version, best portrays Hamlet as a kind-hearted character who becomes bitter and even violent after a litany of horrible betrayals. This film uses staging, the actor’s tone, and set design in clever ways to focus the viewer’s attention to the factors which lead Hamlet to ultimately kill Claudius, his father’s murderer, and which lead to his own death.

Must include:
Text & Author reference
Summary
Claim & Evidence
Warrant
Claim Template:
Kenneth Branagh, in his 1996 film version, best portrays Hamlet as a kind-hearted character who becomes bitter and even violent after a litany of horrible betrayals.
(Director), in his (year) film version, best portrays (character) as a __________ who ________________.
TEXT
ESSAY
STUFF
Tossing Lines
Copy the "To be.." and "This above all..." lines into your wnb.
Give yourself some space to work these. A couple of lines between each quote is good.
List One
One may smile, and smile, and be a villain.
Though this be madness, yet there is method in't.
I am but mad north-north-west.
Now cracks a noble heart
List Two
Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.
What a piece of work is a man!
Words, words, words.
God hath given you one face, and you make yourself another.
List Three
Madness in great ones must not unwatched go.
To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there’s the rub.
The lady doth protest too much, methinks.
I must be cruel only to be kind
To be or not to be: that is the question
This above all: to thine own self be true
Now pick one from each list and copy those into your wnb.
Slang is good at this too. Where would we be without:

fo shizzel
bounce
Wifey
kicks
Homeboy
Invitation: (Slang for homework)
Make up 3 new, school appropriate, words and their definitions. Write them into your WNB, but don't tell anyone what they are. You mightcould get wordjacked, yo.

New Word activity:
Write your best word-just the word on a 3x5 card.
Drop the card on the ground. Now walk around until you find a new word you like. Take that card back to your seat and write your definition on the back of the card.
Turn and Talk-Who wrote the best definition.
Find the original author of the term and see how close you came.

Language
Life and Times
Warm Ups
Kreinbring's Day One
Use this code
(ricv17)
to sign into google classroom. It's the same procedure as last semester. You need to use your avondaleschools.org account to get in. Once there all things will become clear to you.
Syllabus is there.
You'll need a Writer's Notebook again, and as we'll be studying Hamlet, you'll want to get on to Genius.com. You may know it as Rap Genius but now it's just genius.

Bill's Stuff
Shakespeare Nuggets
Pick One or Two of these and copy them into your WNB.
She bangs the drum. It makes a dreadful noise.
I am a pirate with a wooden leg.


Independent Practice
Write 5 lines of iambic pentameter. Use all of the things we learned today.
Shifts
End Stops
Caesura
Enjambment
Weak "feminine" ending

Iambic Shifts:
Trochaic
Spondee
Pyrrhic


End Stop
Caesura
Enjambment
Weak or "feminine" End

To be, or not to be--that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles
And by opposing end them. To die, to sleep--
Copy these terms into your WNB, please.
Iambic
Pentameter
What is Iambic Pentameter?
Unstressed Stressed "Foot"
Sonnet XVIII - William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Spondee Shift
Two Stressed syllables
Crý, crý! Tróy búrns, or élse let Hélen gó.
Trochee Shift
Stressed Unstressed
Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Pyrrric
Two unstressed
When the blood creeps and the nerves prick.
Enjambment
April is the cruellest month, breeding
Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing
Memory and desire, stirring
Dull roots with spring rain.
End Stop
Caesura
To err is human; || to forgive, divine.
Walk the soliloquy, change direction at each shift.
Grab a partner's hand and push/pull as you read each shift.
WNB:
What do you notice differently about the speech on each reading? How would you read it? Why?
Invitation:
Use the link to genius.com that I put on google classroom to get to this speech. Pick a couple, 2-3, spots and annotate it. Leave your interpretation, an idea or connection that you think will help other people get more out of the speech.

Part I:
Make a character web that shows the relationships and conflicts between these characters:
Hamlet Polonius
Claudius Gertrude
Laretes Ophelia
Part II
Write a summary of the First Act.


Quick Quiz
Use your notes
Same close read as last time.
Mark It Up for Shifts.
When he shifts in wording or emotion, or when he would alter the way he is speaking (like he would whisper or speak louder), he CHANGES DIRECTION.
Mark the enjambments, caesuras, and end stops before you decide when to shift.
Denote the shifts/change in direction with two different color highlighter.
The second act establishes the building conflict.
Does Hamlet really love Ophelia?
Is Hamlet really crazy or just putting on an "antic disposition."
Decisions:
In your WNB make two charts oo two facing pages.
Label Them like this:
Ophlelia
Loves Her Loves Her NOT

Hamlet
Crazy For Real
Faking it!
"Antic Disposition"
In each chart start keeping track of evidence that supports both sides. This is a decision about how to interpret the character
Act II Scene 1 (Two Actors)
Ophelia describes Hamlet.
Draw him in your WNB
Act it out-I know there are no lines.
Why would Hamlet act like this?
Act II Scene 2 (Two Actors)
Look at the the scene between Hamlet and Polonius.
Look closely at Hamlet's lines.
Act it out with a partner.

Think about who Hamlet is talking to and what he might want Polonius think about him?
Act II Scene 2 (3 Actors)
Look at the at the lines where hamlet talks to his old friends Guildenstern and Rosencrantz.

Does he trust them? Is he crazy?

In this Act multiple people come in and out to interact with or talk about Hamlet's behavior. We're going to break it into chunks and have different groups of actors work out what's happening. That's right-you're going to interpret the play.
As you work your way through your part of the Act consider what your character wants.
What does your character want from the other character?
What does your character want to conceal?
ACT II
Acting Companies
Act II Quiz:
On the blank side of the card write down 3 things you remember from Act II.
1. Plot item
2. Something about a character
3. A Theme

On the lined side respond to one of these:
Is Hamlet really crazy?
or
Does Hamlet really love Ophelia?

Tell me why.
To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,
The insolence of office and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscover'd country from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pith and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action.--Soft you now!
The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in thy orisons
Be all my sins remember'd.

Now, Mark It Up for Shifts.
Imagine Hamlet might be doing as he says these lines. Assign him an action.
When he shifts in wording or emotion, or when he would alter the way he is speaking (like he would whisper or speak louder), he CHANGES DIRECTION.
Mark the enjambments, caesuras, and end stops before you decide when to shift.
Denote the shifts/change in direction with two different color highlighter.
Let's get this soliloquy on its feet!

Boys will read
BLUE LINES
and girls will read
PINK LINES
Walk the soliloquy, change direction at each shift.
Grab a partner's hand and push/pull as you read each shift.
WNB:
What do you notice differently about the speech on each reading? How would you read it? Why?
The question is: is it better to be alive or dead? Is it nobler to put up with all the nasty things that luck throws your way, or to fight against all those troubles by simply putting an end to them once and for all? Dying, sleeping—that’s all dying is—a sleep that ends all the heartache and shocks that life on earth gives us—that’s an achievement to wish for. To die, to sleep—to sleep, maybe to dream. Ah, but there’s the catch: in death’s sleep who knows what kind of dreams might come, after we’ve put the noise and commotion of life behind us. That’s certainly something to worry about. That’s the consideration that makes us stretch out our sufferings so long.
After all, who would put up with all life’s humiliations—the abuse from superiors, the insults of arrogant men, the pangs of unrequited love, the inefficiency of the legal system, the rudeness of people in office, and the mistreatment good people have to take from bad—when you could simply take out your knife and call it quits? Who would choose to grunt and sweat through an exhausting life, unless they were afraid of something dreadful after death, the undiscovered country from which no visitor returns, which we wonder about without getting any answers from and which makes us stick to the evils we know rather than rush off to seek the ones we don’t? Fear of death makes us all cowards, and our natural boldness becomes weak with too much thinking. Actions that should be carried out at once get misdirected, and stop being actions at all. But shh, here comes the beautiful Ophelia. Pretty lady, please remember me when you pray.
Get in groups of no more than 9 then split this section into chunks. I’ve given you 6 but you can change that.
Assign a chunk to the appropriate number of actors.
Each pair needs to do the following:

Read the entire section to see how it should look as a whole. This part is important because to make good decisions we need to understand the source.

Now start making choices!

Block the chunk-Decide how the actors will move and interact with each other.
Each chunk pair (or whatever) needs to practice the scene and be prepared to perform it.
Mark up your section with the moves and how to read the lines (emphasis, tone of voice, stresses, etc.) You’ll turn this part in for a grade. Probably on Genius. All of your choices need to be explained.

Let's see how the choices worked out.
The entire group will perform the scene all the way through tableau style. I’ll explain that.

Nunnery Scene Tableau
So we're all about multiple interpretations, and making decisions. Here's another chance for you to look closely at the text and decide how it should look.
To Be or Not to Be
Get Thee to a Nunnery
Hamlet Harkness Discussion

What’s the Goal of a Harkness Discussion?
In this case you will be talking about which interpretation of Act III of Hamlet best represents the goals of the original text. Not how true it is to the written word but which version best represents the larger theme(s) of the play.
How Do I Prepare?

Preparation is Key! Make sure you come to class having completed the assigned reading and having ideas and questions to discuss before we start. Don’t forget the focus of the discussion, the text! Be prepared to cite quotations from the text, give specific examples, analyze passages in detail, and consider different interpretations. These are key components to great discussion.

You are required to bring in your book and at least one page of notes, questions, discussion starter in order to participate.


Group Skillz

How Can We Include Everyone?
This is a team effort. Not only does everyone have to do his/her bit, but everyone has to look out for each other: don't hog! If you find yourself dominating the discussion, consciously hold onto your thoughts, write them down, let a few people speak until you speak again. Encourage those members who are holding back--direct questions to them. Keep the conversation dynamic and alive.

Evaluation:

How are Harkness Discussions Graded?
Since this is a team effort, my intent is to give a team grade. The whole class, more or less, will get the same grade. The exceptions are those students who distract or detract from the discussion or resist efforts to get them involved (they will score lower grades). It is also conceivable that persons could score higher grades by performing truly exceptional group-beneficial feats such as "saving" or immensely uplifting a in a way that benefits everyone. But, with few exceptions, everyone gets the same grade, so think as a team, act as a team.
Final Requests
Do the Right Thing! It should be clear that unprepared, unwilling students cannot hide or be carried by the crowd, but will, rather, force others to motivate them or else bring the group down as a whole, so do the right thing!
Stop Looking at Me! This is a class discussion but invariably, some scholars will be tempted to address their statements to their silent leader (me). You’re speaking to each other, so look at each other, please.
ACT IV
Let's talk about Ophelia.
Take a look at her speech in V, 5.
What has driven her to this state.
Multiple Interpretations of a "text"
Final Project
For our purposes "text" can be just about anything you want. We've been looking at Hamlet, and if you want to pursue that you can, but you're also free to go in a different direction.
You have to decide what you think about the "text" and the interpretations. This means you need to think about a couple of things:
"Text"
What do you want to work on? Text can be Hamlet, or another play or work of literature. It can also be an interpretation of something else, like a piece of music, or remakes of a movie. It might be a work of art that gets interpreted. Since we're broadening our definitions it could be a car or even food. What are you interested in and what do you want to work on?

Here's one of my ideas. I was thinking about Gatsby.
I never saw this one so I'll have to track it down.
I thought this one was dull because Gatsby is so mannered and calm. That works with the book I guess but it made for a dull movie. Movies have to move they can't rely on the writing to carry them-unless it's dialogue. (Hey I think I found a criteria.)
This is probably my favorite. But what are my criteria. What was Fitzgerald trying to say with his book? I better look back at my notes on that. It s move though and it that's a criteria. I remember that Fitz was into modern stuff, like Jazz music, and this version uses modern music, hey and it's in 3D which is modern.
Original text

How do I want to present my ideas? I could write and essay, but can I do it some other way? Maybe I could do a presentation or a mash up of the movies that proves my claim. That'd be totes fetch (It'll catch on.). Lemme ask my Humble Instructor.

Yup you can present your project however you want. You just need to let me know what you're planning so I can help you out. Use the Form on Classroom.
Original Intent:
What was the purpose, maybe history, of the original?
Answer that question in your WNB.

Criteria:
How are you going to decide which interpretation is best, or most successful? Criteria have to clear and get beyond "I like it best."

Step One: Pick a Source text.
Ok, I have my Source Text and my interpretations. What next?
I need to establish criteria.

I think I'll use action, modernity (although I need to think about this) and maybe something else related to the theme. I looked at my notes and I see I wrote about the conflict between the classes-Old $, New $ and No $-might do that.

Now I need a claim.
Simple but how do I write it?

Here's one way:
In his 2013 movie adaptation of The Great Gatsby, director Baz Lehrman creates the finest example of Fitzgerald's original intent by emphasizing the modernity, and action to look at how the Rich manipulated, and continue to manipulate the people around them.

Coolio, that'll work for now. I have a text reference, and my author plus the criteria. I also connected it to today so I answer the question of "So what?".
Full transcript