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Transcript of Dante's Inferno
The Violent and Bestial Canto XIII (13) Canto XIV (14) Canto XV (15) Canto XVI (16) Canto XVII (17) SIN: People who shed the blood of other men. Here are those who made battles and wars on other countries and people around them.
PUNISHMENT: These people are smothered under the boiling hot river of blood (also known as the Phlegethon). Centaurs would stab them and shoot arrows at them when they try to rise form the river.
RETRIBUTION: Because of their violence towards their neighbors and the blood that was shed, they wallow themselves in blood for eternity. Since they did violence towards their neighbor, the violence in now upon them. Violence against Neighbors Centaurs and the Phlegethon Pity: (Canto 12) pg.110, Line 1-3:
Love of that land that was common source.
moved me to tears; I gathered up the leaves
and gave them back. He was already hoarse. Tone MYTHOLOGICAL , BIBLICAL , AND HISTORICAL CHARACTERS Minotaur (Mythological) - Creatures with a human body, but a bull's head. Keep inmates from escaping in the seventh circle. Known to devour human flesh, which is symbolic to those he guards. Centaurs (Mythological)-Creatures with the torso of a human and the body of a horse. They are known for their aggressiveness. They are also symbols of bestiality. (Chiron and Nessus) Attila the Hun (Mythological)- The leader who was recognized for being a ruthless barbarian. His fierce and uncivilized characteristics made him the most feared in medieval times. Alexander the Great (Mythological)- A tyrant who was a murderer and a war enthusiast. Violence Against Self SIN: people who cause harm to themself by destroying their bodies/life on purpose
PUNISHMENT: Since they have destroyed their own bodies, they are taken a figure of a tree which has no resemblance to the human body. As long as the blood flows out of the trees, the souls are permitted to speak. Eternally the Harpies gives the trees recurring wounds by feeding upon them, picking and damaging their branches/ limbs.
RETRIBUTION: They are denied any human form since they have destroyed their own bodies. They are also only allowed to speak when they have seen their own blood. Harpies and the Wood of Suicides Hesitant/ Hopeless: (Canto 13) pg. 103, line 31-36:
Puzzled, I raised my hand a bit and slowly broke off a branchlet from an enormous thorn: and the great trunk of it cried: "Why do you break me?" And after blood had darkened all the bowl of the wound, it cried again: "Why do you tear me? Is there no pity left in any soul?..." Tone SIN: Those who have a lack of deep respect for God.
PUNISHMENT: They are stretched out upon the burning hot sand for eternity.
RETRIBUTION: Since they were violent towards God, they feel God's wrath : rain of fire. Blasphemers MYTHOLOGICAL , BIBLICAL , AND HISTORICAL CHARACTERS MYTHOLOGICAL , BIBLICAL , AND HISTORICAL CHARACTERS Capaneus- He tried to scale the walls of Thebes however got struck by a thunder bolt from Jove (Zeus). Capaneaus still disrespects God in Hell. Violence Against God Violence Against Nature SIN: Sodomy; sexual relations between two people of the same sex.
PUNISHMENT: to run in circles endlessly on the plain of burning sand while the rain of fire falls on them.
RETRIBUTION: rain of fire is unnatural, so falls upon them because they are considered unnatural. Sodomites (Brunetto) MYTHOLOGICAL , BIBLICAL , AND HISTORICAL CHARACTERS Ser Brunetto Latino Violence Against Nature and Art Violence Against Art Sin: Deceiving others for their own personal gain.
Punishment: Their eyes gushing with tears, are forever fixed on the purses hung around their necks.
Retribution: the sinners are forever fixed upon these purses yet they can never reach them. Because the sinners always did anything they wanted while living they are unable to attain what they wish in Hell. Pier Delle Vigne (Historical)- Famous chancellor of the emperor, Frederick II. He was imprisoned, blined and tortured because he was accused of betraying Frederick's trust. He was said to have been plotting with the pope against him. Pier Delle Vigne comitted suicide to escape any more torment. Harpies (Mythological)- Overseers of the damned souls. They show no sympathy towards the trees. The harpies are the ones who inflict the wounds and cause the trees to bleed. Lano da Siena (Historical)- A famous squanderer who wanted to die, so he purposely wasted his wealth and could not live on in poverty. He died in a battle against Aretines in 1287. He is a Florentine Guelph
who is Dante's poetic inspiration. He wrote the books The Book of the Treasure and The Literature Treasure, both which Dante admires. Sodomites: those who have
sexual relations with animals
or with those of the same sex. Fearful: (Canto 17) pg.137, line 79-82:
Like one so close to the quartanary chill
that his nails are already pale and his flesh trembles at the very sight of shade or a cool rill- so did I tremble at each frightful word. Tone Geryon MYTHOLOGICAL , BIBLICAL , AND HISTORICAL CHARACTERS MYTHOLOGICAL , BIBLICAL , AND HISTORICAL CHARACTERS Guido Guerra (Historical)- The
leader of the Guelphs and a sodomite.
He was against with going to was with Sienna, which was the was that drove
the Guelphs from power. He is in Hell because Dante labels him as a sodomite. Tegghiaio Aldobrandi (Historical)-
A valiant knight. He was against
with going to war with Sienna,
which was the war that drove
the Guelphs from power. Dante also labels him as a Sodomite. Geryon (Mytholgical) - One of Dante's most complex creatures. Geryon
has a honest face of a man,
has a body of a reptile, hairy paws, and a scorpion's tail. He symbolizes fraud. Jacopo Rusticucci (Historical) -
A rich and respected Florentine knight. The spokesmen for the Guelphs. Another sodomite according to Dante, but that is unsupported. No details about his life are known. In an Island called Crete, sits an
old man statue. Tears would flow
through the cracks of the statue
and would gather at his feet.
These tears represent the
sufferings faced in a human's life. Old Man of Crete The 'Old Man of Crete" represents an allergorical vision that is related to King Nebuchadnezzar's dream in the Book of Daniel in the Bible. The statue had head of gold, chest and arms of silver, a waist/hip of bronze, and legs of iron. In the bible, this statue signifies the declining of all the kingdoms inferior to God's eternal kingdom. It is an allegory of the Great Chain of
Being, all the different ages of humanity from perfection to corruption.
1st: Golden age-
2nd: Silver age
3rd: Bronze age
4th: Iron age (most corrupted of all)
SIN: Sodomy; sexual relations between two people of the same sex.
PUNISHMENT: to run in circles endlessly on the plain of burning
sand while the rain of fire falls on them.
RETRIBUTION: rain of fire is unnatural, so falls upon them because they are considered unnatural. "Why do you tear me? Is there no pity left in any soul? Men we were, and now we are changed to sticks;
well might your hand have been more merciful were we no more than souls of lice and ticks” (Page 103. Lines 35-40.) In the woods of suicide, a tree called Frederick explains his story to Dante. The poor soul states he did not want to break his faith to the lord, he just wanted to be free. He is now committed to the form of a tree for eternity.
Virgil apologizes for having to hurt the sinner and how he promises that Dante will talk about the sinner when he gets back on earth as a kind of compensation for the pain caused. "What I was living, the same am I now, dead"
(Page 112. Line 48.) This is a statement made by Capaneus in the plain of burning fire. This quote shows that Capaneus keeps his same qualities from his time of living to Hell. He has not changed and continues blaspheming against God. Virgil believes if he continues to do so, his punishment will increase.
“And there is cause: the sweet fig
is not meant to bear its fruits beside
the bitter sorb-tree.”
(Page 120. Lines 65-66.) The sinners in circle seven, round three are sodomites. They have sinned against nature as they are not populating as God intended.
This quote is said by Ser Brunetto Latino, making a reference to the story of Adam and Eve. He states their actions are not pure, thus the reasoning for being placed in circle seven. “We could already here the rumbling
drive of the water fall in its plunge
to the next circle, a murmur like the throbbing of a hive…”
(Page 126. Lines 1-3.) This quote is an example of the poetic devices used throughout Dante’s Inferno.
This is an example of auditory imagery, which is descriptive language that evokes noise, music, or other sounds. It also doubles as a simile, comparing a murmur to the throbbing of a hive. “His two great paws were hairy to
the armpits; all his back and breast and both his flanks were figured with bright knots and subtle circlets…” (Page 135. Lines 13-15.) This quote explains the description of Geryon, the monster of Fraud. Dante uses specific, but simple words to describe Geryon. His spotted body suggests a body similar to a leopard, the figure of fraud. Also, his hairy paws are similar to those of a lion, the figure for violence and bestiality. “…I thought the universe felt love and all its elements moved toward harmony,
whereby the world of matter, as some believe, has often plunged to chaos.” (Page 94. Lines 40-43.) This quote is a reference to the Ptolemaic Spheres said by Virgil.
The perfection of the heavens is expressed in the idea of the music of the spheres. The music would reveal the essential harmony of all creation.
Without the elements that make up harmony, there would be chaos.
Phaethon was the the son of Apollo who droves the chariot of the sun. When Phaethon was given the chance to drive the chariot, he lost control and was killed by Zeus with a thunderbolt.
Icarus was the son of Daedalus. Daedalus made wings for both himself and his son, but Icarus ignored his fathers command and flew too close to the sun. His wings melted, and he fell in the Aegean Sea where he drowned.
Allusion Dante identifies with both men because they both died during flight, and he has the feeling he is going to die while he is flying on the back of Geryon. Tone
Pity, Compassion: (canto 16) pg. 128 line 52- 54
"Not contempt," I said, "But the compassion that siezes on my soul and memory at the thought of you tormented in this fashion-
Aggressive/ Violent: (canto 14) pg. 112 line 58- 59
"At this my guide spoke with such vehemence as i had not heard from him in all of hell" Tone
Sorrowful:(canto 15) pg. 121, line 79- 81
"Ah had I all my wish," I answered then, "You would not be banished from the world in which you were a radiance among men," Jacomo da Sant' Andrea(Historical): a man who constanly wasted his own goods, as well as his neighbors. In celebration he once set fire to to all of the workeres huts and buildings on his estate. He was murdered in 1239. Guglielmo borsiere: a peacemaker, a courtier and an arranger of marriage. Accused of Sodomy. The Good Gualdrada:Guido Guerra's grandmother, and daughter of Bellincione Berti de' Ravignana. Said no man would kiss her unless he was her husband. Emperor Otto IV was impressed by her modesty, so he married her and together they made the counts Guido de Modigliano. Priscian: Latin grammarian and poet. Francesco d' Accorsp: A florintine scholar. He was a professor at Bologna and Oxford.