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Transcript of Recidivism Rates
“being able to answer for one's conduct and obligations”
How is lacking responsibility a Barrier?
shame: motivation to hide and blame others
defensive response instead of reparation action
denial, minimization and excuses
enthusiasm to actively engagement in change-orientated behaviours and a devotion to these behaviours.
How is motivation to change a barrier?
lack of motivation causes relapse and negative treatment outcomes
Often, crime is in the offender's self-interest
Initial decision to change, is motivated by self-interest
Hence, motivation for crime conflicts motivation to change
when an offenders experience two or more prison terms
Belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task
How is self efficacy a barrier?
Offenders: low self-efficacy and difficulties changing behavior
Self efficacy includes hope, optimism and belief in your abilities
Prisoners had low optimism & hope for opportunities post-release
Improved by: performance accomplishments, vacarious experiene, verbal persuasion, improve emotional states
A cycle in which elements of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination co-occur together in a power situation.
Exists in three levels: structural, social and self
How is stigma a barrier?
Marginalisation and isolation via institutional barriers.
Discrimination from other members of the community.
Personal prejudices and low self-worth
Vocational Education and Training
What are we currently doing?
Most general offender change programs focus on providing opportunities for life-style changes.
Programs designed to inspire desistance are specialised for specific offender samples, e.g sex-offenders, substance abusers.
Is there room for improvement?
Psychological barriers to change:
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Burrowes & Needs, 2009; Emmons, 1999; McMurran & Ward, 2004; Shapland & Bottoms, 2011; Gideon, 2010)
Comparing Recidivism Rates
(Deady, 2014; Fazel & Wolf, 2015)
(Davis, Bahr, & Ward, 2013; Heseltine, Sarre & Day, 2011; Maruna, 2001)
(Link & Phelan, 2001; Moore, Stuewig & Tangney, 2013)
(Bandura, 1977; Laferrière & Morselli, 2015; Kroner & Loza, 2001; Roth, Asbjornsen,& Manger, 2016)
(Adams, 1992; Jobes, Barclay, Weinard, and Donnermeyer, 2004; Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services, 2014; Payne, 2007; Steering Committee for the Review of Commonwealth/State Service Provision, 2014)
(Tangney, 2014; Ware & Mann, 2012)
programs that develop trade and education skills
Open up job opportunities, correlated with desistence
Successful in Australian prison populations
Enforce requirement for all prisons to have such programs
Combats stigma over time
Improve self-efficacy through performance accomplishment
(Bandura, 1977; Callan & Gardner, 2007)
Policy recommends enforcing requirements for all prisons and rehabilitation programs to involve components designed to combat all the aforementioned barriers to offender engagement in opportunities to change.
a client-centred therapeutic method which conquers resistance to change through reducing ambivalence toward a problem behavior and change
Motivation: highlights inconsistencies between goals and current behaviour
Self-Efficacy: empower and goal orientated
Responsibility: changing shame to guilt and remorse
(Anstiss, Polaschek, & Wilson, 2011; Burrowes & Needs, 2009; McMurran 2009; Burnett & Maruna, 2006; Rollnick & Miller, 1995; Mann et al., 2003; Ginsburg (2000; cited in Mann, Ginsburg, & Weeks, 2003)