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Recidivism Rates

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Amelia Reynolds

on 11 May 2017

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Transcript of Recidivism Rates

Reducing Recidivism: Tackling Resistance to Desistance

Responsibility
Define:
“being able to answer for one's conduct and obligations”

How is lacking responsibility a Barrier?
shame: motivation to hide and blame others
defensive response instead of reparation action
denial, minimization and excuses
Motivation
Define:
enthusiasm to actively engagement in change-orientated behaviours and a devotion to these behaviours.


How is motivation to change a barrier?
lack of motivation causes relapse and negative treatment outcomes
Often, crime is in the offender's self-interest
Initial decision to change, is motivated by self-interest
Hence, motivation for crime conflicts motivation to change
Recidivism
Define:
when an offenders experience two or more prison terms

Consequences:
Individual
Social
Economic
Self-Efficacy
Define:
Belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task

How is self efficacy a barrier?
Offenders: low self-efficacy and difficulties changing behavior
Self efficacy includes hope, optimism and belief in your abilities
Prisoners had low optimism & hope for opportunities post-release
Improved by: performance accomplishments, vacarious experiene, verbal persuasion, improve emotional states

Stigma
Define:
A cycle in which elements of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination co-occur together in a power situation.
Exists in three levels: structural, social and self

How is stigma a barrier?
Structural:
Marginalisation and isolation via institutional barriers.
Social:
Discrimination from other members of the community.
Self:
Personal prejudices and low self-worth

Australia
Conclusion
Vocational Education and Training
What are we currently doing?
Most general offender change programs focus on providing opportunities for life-style changes.
Programs designed to inspire desistance are specialised for specific offender samples, e.g sex-offenders, substance abusers.



Is there room for improvement?
Causes
Psychological barriers to change:
Motivation
Responsibility
Self-Efficacy
Stigma
References
Anstiss, B., Polaschek, D., & Wilson, M. (2011). A brief motivational interviewing intervention with prisoners: when you lead a horse to water, can it drink for itself?. Psychology, Crime & Law, 17(8), 689-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10683160903524325
Adams, K. (1992). Adjusting to Prison Life. Crime And Justice, 16, 275-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/449208
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.84.2.191
Burrowes, N., & Needs, A. (2009). Time to contemplate change? A framework for assessing readiness to change with offenders. Aggression And Violent Behavior, 14(1), 39-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.08.003
Callan, V., & Gardner, J. (2007). The role of VET in recidivism in Australia, in Dawe S (ed),
Vocational education and training for adult prisoners and offenders in Australia: research readings. Adelaide: NCVER: 27–36. http://www.ncver.edu.au/publications/1789.htm
Davis, C., Bahr, S., & Ward, C. (2013). The process of offender reintegration: Perceptions of what helps prisoners reenter society. Criminology And Criminal Justice, 13(4), 446-469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1748895812454748
Deady, C. (2014). Incarceration and Recidivism: Lessons from abroad (341-2927). Rhode Island: Pell Centre for International Relations and Public Policy.
Emmons, R. (1999). The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns. New York: Guilford Press.
Fazel, S., & Wolf, A. (2015). A Systematic Review of Criminal Recidivism Rates Worldwide: Current Difficulties and Recommendations for Best Practice. PLOS ONE, 10(6), e0130390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130390
Jobes, P., Barclay, E., Weinand, H., & Donnermeyer, J. (2004). A Structural Analysis of Social Disorganisation and Crime in Rural Communities in Australia. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Criminology, 37(1), 114-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/acri.37.1.114
Kroner, D., & Loza, W. (2001). Evidence for the efficacy of self-report in predicting nonviolent and violent criminal recidivism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(2)
Laferrière, D., & Morselli, C. (2015). Criminal Achievement and Self-efficacy. The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
Mann, R., Ginsburg, J., & Weeks, J. (2003). Motivational interviewing with offenders. Motivating offenders to change: A guide to enhancing engagement in therapy. (Vol. 52, pp. 87-102). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Maruna, S. (2001). Making Good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. (1st ed., pp. 37-52 117-130). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
McMurran, M. (2009). Motivational interviewing with offenders: A systematic review. Legal And Criminological Psychology, 14(1), 83-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/135532508x278326
McMurran, M., & Ward, T. (2004). Motivating offenders to change in therapy: An organizing framework. Legal And Criminological Psychology, 9(2), 295-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/1355325041719365
Moore, K., Stuewig, J., & Tangney, J. (2013). Jail inmates’ perceived and anticipated stigma: Implications for post-release functioning. Self and Identity : The Journal of the International Society for Self and Identity, 12(5), 527–547. http://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2012.702425
Office of The Inspector of Custodial Services (2014). Recidivism rates and the impact of treatment programs. Perth: Government of Western Australia
Payne, J. (2007). Recidivism in Australia. Australian Institute of Criminology.80. Retrieved from http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/rpp/80/rpp080.pdf
Rollnick & Miller (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 23(4). 325-334 http://doi:10.1017/S135246580001643X
Roth, B., Asbjornsen, A., & Manger, T. (2016). The Relationship Between Prisoners’ Academic Self-efficacy and Participation in Education, Previous Convictions, Sentence Length, and Portion of Sentence Served. Journal of Prison Education and Reentry
Shapland, J., & Bottoms, A. (2011). Reflections on social values, offending and desistance among young adult recidivists. Punishment & Society, 13(3), 256-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1462474511404334
Steering Committee for the Review of Commonwealth/State Service Provision (2014). Report on government services, volume 1: Education, justice emergency management. Melbourne: Productivity Commission
Tangney, J, P., Stuewig, J., Martinez, A, G. (2014). Two Faces of Shame. Psychological Science, 25(3), 799-805. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.library.uwa.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1177/0956797613508790
Ware, J., Mann, R, E. (2012). How Should “Acceptance of Responsibility be addressed in sexua offending treatment programs? Aggression and Violent Behaviour. (17) 279-288
(
Burrowes & Needs, 2009; Emmons, 1999; McMurran & Ward, 2004; Shapland & Bottoms, 2011; Gideon, 2010)
Comparing Recidivism Rates
(Deady, 2014; Fazel & Wolf, 2015)
(Davis, Bahr, & Ward, 2013; Heseltine, Sarre & Day, 2011; Maruna, 2001)
Motivational Interviewing
(Link & Phelan, 2001; Moore, Stuewig & Tangney, 2013)
(Bandura, 1977; Laferrière & Morselli, 2015; Kroner & Loza, 2001; Roth, Asbjornsen,& Manger, 2016)
(Adams, 1992; Jobes, Barclay, Weinard, and Donnermeyer, 2004; Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services, 2014; Payne, 2007; Steering Committee for the Review of Commonwealth/State Service Provision, 2014)
(Tangney, 2014; Ware & Mann, 2012)
Define:
programs that develop trade and education skills

Open up job opportunities, correlated with desistence
Successful in Australian prison populations
Enforce requirement for all prisons to have such programs
Combats stigma over time
Improve self-efficacy through performance accomplishment
(Bandura, 1977; Callan & Gardner, 2007)
Policy recommends enforcing requirements for all prisons and rehabilitation programs to involve components designed to combat all the aforementioned barriers to offender engagement in opportunities to change.
Define:
a client-centred therapeutic method which conquers resistance to change through reducing ambivalence toward a problem behavior and change

Motivation: highlights inconsistencies between goals and current behaviour
Self-Efficacy: empower and goal orientated
Responsibility: changing shame to guilt and remorse

(Anstiss, Polaschek, & Wilson, 2011; Burrowes & Needs, 2009; McMurran 2009; Burnett & Maruna, 2006; Rollnick & Miller, 1995; Mann et al., 2003; Ginsburg (2000; cited in Mann, Ginsburg, & Weeks, 2003)
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