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The Millipede

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by

Taaheast Alexander

on 22 December 2013

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Transcript of The Millipede

The Millipede
Reproductive Ecology
During mating season (Early Spring), males and females are brought together by pheromones released by the male millipede. Millipedes breeding consist of the male, walking along the back of the female and stimulating her with rhythmic movements of his legs.(Vattakaven, 2010)


Habitat
Millipedes like to reside on land in wet areas like underneath rocks, in dead logs, in leaf debris, and in the soil. They like cool wet areas and become mostly active at night or after it rains. Millipedes are able to find their way into people homes if it's cool or moist. I was unable to find any millipedes but this is the kind of weather they love.
Species
The species I have chosen to write on is the millipede. Millipedes are myriapods of the class Diplopoda. Millipede bodies are rounded or somewhat flattened. There legs are short and they move slowly.
Introduction
I reside in Northern Georgia. I live in the city of Kennesaw. Millipedes like to live in moist areas. I usually see millipedes around our pool, water hoses and damp areas inside my home. I choose to write about these species so I can learn more about them.
“The female then raises her front segments, allowing the male to twist his body around her. When their genitalia are opposed to each other, sperm transfer occurs. The sperm transfer is accomplished when the male transfers a packet of sperm called the spermatophore to the female, via the Gonopods. The female then raises her front segments, allowing the male to twist his body around her. When their genitalia are opposed to each other, sperm transfer occurs.” (Vattakaven, 2010)
The sperm transfer is accomplished when the male transfers a packet of sperm called the spermatophore to the female, via the Gonopods. A millipede goes through an incomplete metamorphosis. The incomplete metamorphosis is the three stages which the species develop which are eggs, nymph and adult. The female millipede lays eggs in the soil during the warmer months, which she will guard until they hatch. After the millipedes hatch there is not any kind of maternal care. (Vattakaven, 2010)
Diet
Millipedes are detritivore which are insects that feed on dead or organic material. Millipedes feed on decaying organic matter and they eat the roots and leaves of seedling plants. Millipedes break down dead plants and and rejuvenate the soil.
Introduction to Biology SCIN 130 Fall 13 Professor Julie Golden
(Vattakaven,T Millipedes Mating Figure 1)
(Vattakaven,T Millipedes Mating Figure 2)
Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Arthropod, Subphylum: Myriapoda, Class: Diplopoda (millipedes). Approximately 7,500 species of millipedes
Defense and Predators
Some examples of Millipedes predator are birds, toads and small mammals’. A millipede does not have stingers or pinchers to fend off their predator. (Class Diplopoda- Millipedes, 2003-2013)
Millipedes depend on their exoskeleton as a first line of defense. Their primary source of defense is to curl into a tight coil. Certain species of millipedes can produce a liquid which is harmful to small animals and harmless to humans unless it gets in their eyes. The liquid can irritate human’s skin or may even cause blisters. "The fluids are of variable composition. Some millipedes discharge p-benzoquinones (orders Julida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida), others eject phenols (order Callipodida), and still others emit cyanogenic compounds (order Polydesmida), quinazolinones (order Glomerida), or alkaloids (order Polyzoniida). One group not known to be chemically protected is the polyxenids (order Polyxenida)." (Eisner, 1996)
Defense
Millipedes Mating
Works Cited

Centipede, Millipede. (n.d.). Retrieved from Texas A&M AgriLife Extension:http://
insects.tamu.edu/fieldguide/cimg379.htm
Class Diplopoda- Millipedes. (2003-2013). Retrieved from
BugGide:http://bugguide.net/node/view/37?printable=1
Eisner, T. (1996, July 24). Millipede defense: Use of detachable
bristles to entangle ants. Retrieved from Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell
University,:http://www.pnas.org content/93/20/10848.full.pdf
Gusani, H (2010, August 21) Millipedes Mating and Feeding [Video File] http://
youtu.be/GQi13N6Dc2A
National Wildlife Federation. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Wildlife
Federation:
http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/wildlife-library/invertebrates/ Millipedes.aspx
Vattakaven, T. (2010, June 24). Matting in Millipedes. Retrieved from Nature
Magnified Profiling Nature's Biodiversity up close through Photography:
http://www.naturemagnified.com/2010/06/mating-in-millipedes.html
(figure 1 and 2)



(Gusani, 2010)
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