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HIV

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Nikeydra Triplett

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of HIV

Thank You
What is HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Life Cycle of HIV
Transmission
HIV is present in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk, and, in very low levels, saliva and tears. The most common ways that HIV is transmitted are by means of

• sex contact

• sharing of HIV- contaminated needles ( e. g., by injection drug users)

• blood transfusions using infected blood or blood- clotting factors

• accidental needle stick injuries ( healthcare workers are at risk while working with HIV-positive patients)

• congenital AIDS ( before or during birth or through breastfeeding)

• sharing of HIV- contaminated tattoo needles, razors, acupuncture needles, or ear- piercing implements.

Did You Know?
How Do You Get It?
HIV
Causative agent of AIDS
A retrovirus which only infects humans, although there is a closely-related Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Attacks CD4+ T cells, but may use other leukocytes such as monocytes as reservoirs
Sarah Caldwell, Christine Peddapanga, Nikeydra Triplett
Nov. 20, 2014

Pathogenesis
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms can vary depending on the individual and the stages of HIV.
Methods of Diagnosis
There are several ways to detect HIV.

1)
Antibody Tests
: most common to look for HIV antibodies.
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests use blood, saliva, or urine to detect HIV antibodies. The results take up to 2 weeks.
Rapid HIV antibody tests also use blood, saliva, or urine to detect HIV antibodies. The results take up to 20-30 minutes.

If the results are positive, another test called the Western blot test should be taken. These results take up to 2 weeks to confirm the virus.

2)
Antigen Tests
: not as common but can be used to diagnose HIV within 1-3 weeks after being infected with HIV. This test requires a blood sample.

3)
PCR Test
: detects the genetic material of HIV and can identify HIV in the blood within 2-3 weeks of infection.
Babies born to HIV-positive mothers are tested with a special PCR test, because their blood contains the mother's antibodies for several months. This means that a standard antibody HIV test would show them positive, but a PCR test would determine if they actually have HIV.
Treatment
Knowing Your Status
The pathogenesis of HIV infection includes depletion of CD4+ T-cells, accompanied by chronic immune system activation
The virus induces CD4+ T cells to enter the cell cycle, leading to "accelerated cell death"
As infection progresses, T cells begin dying faster than they can be replaced by the bone marrow and thymus
Eventually, the immune system becomes too exhausted to mount a defense against opportunistic infection
World AIDS Day at USM
Submitted by Kamden Strunk on November 13, 2014 - 6:00pm

On Monday, Dec. 1, there will be a series of World AIDS Day events on campus. All events are completely free and open to the public.

There will be a luncheon from noon to 1:45 p.m. in Thad Cochran Center (map (link is external)) Ballroom I, featuring experts, researchers and community leaders to speak on discuss what is being done and how people can contribute to stopping the epidemic. Due to space and food limitations, registration is required. To do so, visit the website (link is external).
From 3:30-6 p.m. in R.C. Cook Union (map (link is external)) Room B, a film showing of "How to Survive a Plague" will be shown, and a discussion will follow. The film focuses on the beginning of the HIV crisis, and speaks to the incredible power of people to work together to effect change, and tells the story of how collective activism helped turned HIV/AIDS into a more manageable condition.
Free, rapid HIV screenings will be available from 11 a.m.-5 p.m. in R.C. Cook Union Rooms, A, C and D on a walk-in basis. Results will be available in 15 minutes.
An AIDS Memorial Quilt viewing, displayed by the AIDS Services Coalition, will be from 11 a.m.-5 p.m. in Thad Cochran Center Main Atrium. The AIDS Memorial Quilt has become a national symbol memorializing those who were lost to the disease. Come view the quilt and reflect on the real human cost of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in our state.
These events are sponsored by the Research Initiative on Social Justice and Equity, the Student Association of Social Workers, the Spectrum Center, the Southeast Mississippi Rural Health Initiative, the Dandelion Project, Southern Miss Health Services, the AIDS Services Coalition, South Mississippi AIDS Task Force, the Mississippi State Department of Health and the USM Office of Multicultural Programs and Services.

Community members without parking permits can obtain a parking permit for this event and map of available parking by emailing kamden.strunk@usm.edu (link sends e-mail).

For any questions or more information, please contact RISE@usm.edu (link sends e-mail).
Remember to always practice safe sex.
Condoms are a form of birth control and protects against STDs/STIs 98% if used correctly.
For more information, please consult your local health department or visit www.aids.gov
Early Stage: Symptoms
Within 2 weeks, many people experience:
Fever (this is the most common symptom)
Swollen glands
Sore throat
Rash
Fatigue
Muscle and joint aches and pains
Headache
Progression to AIDS:
If you have HIV and are not being treated, you can develop:
Rapid weight loss
Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
Extreme and unexplained tiredness
Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck
Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
Sores of the mouth, anus, or genitals
Pneumonia
Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids
Memory loss, depression, and other neurologic disorders.
Numerous anti-HIV drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are classified in various groups.
Non-nucleoside or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Prevents the initiation of the replication process by blocking the synthesis of the cDNA
Integrase inhibitors
Inhibits the integration of the viral DNA into host genome and consequently prevents the replication of the viral genome
Protease inhibitors
Hinders the proper cleavage of the gag-pol polyproteins that are involved in viral assembly making the produced virions inactive
Fusion inhibitors
Interferes with fusion of the viral envelope and cell membrane by hindering the function of gp41
CCR5 inhibitors
Inhibits the binding of CCR5
HAART
Highly active antiretroviral treatment: a cocktail of various anti-HIV drugs with different mechanisms of action to decrease the potential of resistance.

Decreases virus levels in blood and reduces morbidity and mortality in adults with HIV

Each regime or combination of drugs is specific to each patient depending on whether he or she can withstand the side effects, cost and other factors.

Some HAART are combined into one pill.
Vaccination
NO vaccine for HIV is available.

Acquired immunity against HIV would require the production of antibodies specific to the virus.

The antigenicity of gp120 differs depending on the HIV clades and high occurrence of mutations caused by the reverse transcriptase makes the development of HIV vaccine difficult.

HIV also spread within the body via syncytia and remain latent; moves from one cell to another without being detected by the antibody.

Moreover, HIV infects and inactivates the CD4 T-cells that play a keep role in immune response.

Prevention
According to the AIDS.gov, 1 in people in the U.S. are living with HIV but are not aware that they are infected.

Educating the population about HIV, its modes of transmission and methods of preventing spread of the virus is necessary to control HIV infections.

Studies have shown that cautioning people against sharing needles and teaching about safe sex practices have reduced the number of HIV infection.

Potential blood and organ donors are screened before they are allowed to donate.

Same infection control procedures are with hepatitis B patients. Precautions such as wearing protective clothing and other barriers to prevent contact with infected blood.

Contaminated surfaces are disinfected with 10% bleach and 70% ethanol. Washing laundry with hot water and detergent inactivates HIV.

Where did it come from?
Who does it affect ?
HIV -1 infections are spreading world wide, mostly in the sub-Saharan Africa followed by Asia and US.

HIV -2, a less severe and relatively slow progressing form of HIV, is more prevalent Africa than in the US.

Heterosexual transmission is the major mode of transmission of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Africa.

Also...
Epidemiology
HIV is thought to have derived from a simian immunodeficiency virus present in chimpanzees.

The first human infection occurred in Africa in 1930s but was unnoticed until infected people moved to urban areas where the higher population along with acceptance of prostitution triggered to the widespread transmission of HIV.

In the US, AIDS was first seen in homosexual men.

Sexually active people, both heterosexual and homosexual, intravenous drug users and newborns of HIV positive mother have higher risk of getting infected by HIV than others.

The frequency of HIV infection in intravenous drug abusers stems from sharing contaminated needles. These infected drug abusers are another source of sexual transmission of HIV.

3.2 million children live with HIV and most of the them were infected by their HIV postive mothers during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.

Majority of the people infected with HIV are in low or middle income countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa.
Positive Results

As mentioned before, if you take a antibody test, a follow-up test called Western blot should be taken to confirm HIV.

The Steps You Should Take After Diagnosis:
Seek a health professional with experience treating HIV.
Get screened for other STDs and TB as they can go undetected.
Maintain a healthy lifestyle. Smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol could weaken the immune system.
Tell your partner and/or previous partners and begin practicing safe sex.

Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category, 2008–2012—United States and Six Dependent Areas
Before 1985, people receiving blood transfusions or organ transplants were also at a high risk for HIV infection.
Ryan White (Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act),
First international AIDS conference in Atlanta, GA

In 1985, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed the first commercial blood test, ELISA, to detect antibodies to HIV in the blood. Blood banks begin screening the U.S. blood supply.

Proper screening of the blood and tissue samples has greatly reduced this risk.

Hemophiliacs that need clotting factors of blood were also at risk but prolonged heating and proper handling of the clotting factors were implemented.

Such screening procedures have significantly decreased the number of HIV infections caused by blood transfusions and transplants.
Now What?
OraQuick is a FDA-approved HIV home kit which tests for antibodies in the privacy of your home.
You should get tested for HIV every year if you:
share needles/syringes
have a history of STDs
have unprotected sex with multiple or anonymous partners. Or your partner does not know his/her status.

Some healthcare professionals recommend you to get tested every 3-6 months if you have certain risk factors.
Retrived from http://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/global-statistics/
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