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working memory model

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wingki lam

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of working memory model

Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the picture of short term memory by Atkinson's and Shiffrin's (1968) multi-store model was far too simple Developed by Baddely and Hitch and explains the processes in short term memory There are three main stores: central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial scratchpad. Visio-Spatial Scratch Pad is known as the “inner eye” and is specialised for spatial and visual coding. Central Executive Phonological Loop Episode Buffer is known as the “inner voice” and holds information in a speech based form; it has a limited capacity. Monitors and co-ordinates all other mental functions within the working memory. Limited Capacity. Receives input from several sources and temporarily stores the information and then uses it to create a mental episode of what is being experienced. STRENGTHS LIMITATIONS Applies to real life tasks such as reading (phonological loop), problem solving (central executive), and navigation (visual and spatial processing)

Explains a lot more than the multistore model (shows a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension etc) it only looks at short term memory- there is no explanation about how information is transferred between short and long term memory.

it has highlighted the role of sensory memory but ignored most of the senses- e.g- touch, smell, taste Evaluation Of Working Memory Model Evidence for Working Memory Model Doing Two Tasks at the Same Time Evidence of Four Components Evidence from Brain Damaged Patients Baddeley and Hitch (1976)
Aim: To investigate if participants can use different parts of working memory at the same time.
Method: Conducted an experiment in which participants were asked to perform two tasks at the same time (dual task technique) - a digit span task which required them to repeat a list of numbers, and a verbal reasoning task which required them to answer true or false to various questions (e.g. B is followed by A?).
Results: As the number of digits increased in the digit span tasks, participants took longer to answer the reasoning questions, but not much longer - only fractions of a second. And, they didn't make any more errors in the verbal reasoning tasks as the number of digits increased.
Conclusion: The verbal reasoning task made use of the central executive and the digit span task made use of the phonological loop. Central Executive:
bunge et al (2000)
did a fmri (brain scan). for single and dual tasks where showed as the exact same area in the brain scan. but more activity for the dual task

Phonological loop & articulatory process
braddely et al (1975a)
word length effect - recall was better for short words than long ways (can rehearse more than onger ways). however, when given a articulatory suppression task ("the the the") the difference

Visuo-spatial sketchpad
braddeley et al (1975b)
light track task (trace a light), while at the same time as doing a visuo- spatial task (describing angles of the letter "F") or an articulatory task ("the the the"). doing the light track and articulatory task was the easiest.

Episode Buffer
braddely et at (1987)
used unrelated and related words. remembered more related words because ltm made sense of the information, which improved the recall.
Working Memory Model Case study of KF(Shallice &Warrington, 1970)
shows that STM worked independently of LTM as he had no problem with long term learning but some aspects of his immediate memory were impaired.
STM impaired but LTM intact
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