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1A Shakespeare and Romeo and Juliet
Transcript of 1A Shakespeare and Romeo and Juliet
photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr
Shakespeare: Born April 23, 1564
One of 8 kids, couldn't finish school do to lack of $
Married Anne Hathaway, by arranged marriage at 18, had 3 kids and MANY LOVERS
Shareholder in acting company, Lord Chamberlain's Men: later King's Men.
He wrote and acted in his plays
He wrote some 37 plays and 157 sonnets and 2 epic poems
Shakespeare's time was called the Tudor age.
The era had a tug-of-war between Catholic Queen Mary and Protestant, or Church of England, Queen Elizabeth I that left the country torn.
London 'Renaissance', or rebirth of learning
An ugly side with traitors hung from bridges, and feces and trash everywhere.
The unsanitary conditions caused the bubonic plaque killing almost 1/3 of London
The contrast between the rich and the poor was great, and food could be short.
Parents chose marriage partners as alliances and often great loves were not one's wife.
God was important but the king or queen were responsible for the order and control of the country.
Insults by Shakespeare
1) What era was happening during Shakespeare's time?
2) Who was the religious conflict of the time between?
3) Who was the Queen of the time?
4) What was the name of Shakespeare's theater company?
5) What were the standing audience members called?
6) How were plays different from today?
7) Who were the Queens during Shakespeare's time?
8) What was the name of the theater where Shakespeare's plays showed?
9) Why did Shakespeare quit school?
10) What was the general concept of actors during this era?
The play doesn't begin with the first scene, but a prologue
The prologue is a speech by the Chorus that tells us the setting and outcome of the play, thus setting the structure of the play itself and that the lovers' fate is controlled by fate/the stars.
It is 14 lines in iambic pentameter with rhyme scheme (SONNET).
Set in Verona, Italy
2 feuding families- Capulets and Montagues
Tragic love story
Ends in death, and ends feuding
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Prologue (1954)
Romeo + Juliet (1996) prologue
The published 1597
Based on the Italian tale of The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke
Use of tragedy and comedy
Use of sub-plots
Turned into a modern adaption called West Side Story
Romeo and Juliet
R&J Act I
1) What happens in Act 1?
2) Who is the fight between at the beginning, how does it start, and who ends it?
3) Who is Romeo in love with at the beginning?
4) What is Romeo's reaction to finding another love?
5) What is unrelinquished love?
6) What is meant by 'disturbs the quiets of our streets?'
7) What are some of the puns used that play with words in this Act?
8) Why does Romeo go to the party?
9) Who does Romeo meet at the party?
10) Who is Juliet suppose to think about marrying in this act? What do her parents think of this? What is Juliet's idea of marriage and her suitor?
11) What does Mercutio's Queen Mab speech tell us?
12) What does Tybalt want to do at the party?
13) When R&J meet they talk to each other using what literary device?
14) What does Juliet discover in the end of the act?
15) Romeo is a Petrarchan lover, how do we know this?
1) What happens in Act 2?
2) What does the Chorus say happened to Romeo's love for Rosaline?
3) Do Romeo's friends believe he has found a true love?
4) Do R&J court as is natural for that time? Explain.
5) How does Romeo prove he's serious in his love?
6) What does the Friar say in his soliloquy?
7) What does Tybalt's letter to Romeo say?
8) What role do Mercutio, the Nurse and the Friar play in the arrangements of R&J?
9) What does R&J's impatience show?
10) What does the Nurse tell Romeo about Paris?
R&J Act III
R&J Act IV
1) What does the Friar think about marrying R&J?
2) Why does Juliet tell Paris she is visiting the Friar?
3) What does Juliet take with her to the Friar and what does she leave with?
4) How long is the potion supposed to last? What does Juliet worry about it?
5) What does the Friar promise Juliet he will do?
6) Why does Juliet go to her father before using the potion?
7) When does Juliet take the potion and what is her back-up plan? Who does she see as the poison takes affect?
8) Who discovers Juliet? Why is she thought to have died? Where will she go?
9) How does Friar Laurence console the family?
10) What two points at the end of the act relieve the tension and make light of the tragedy?
R&J Act V
1) Why does Romeo not know what really happened to Juliet?
2) Who delivers the news of Juliet's death to Romeo?
3) What is Romeo's reaction to Juliet's death?
4) How does Paris die?
5) Friar Laurence realizes that his plan failed when he hears what?
6) Who arrives at the tomb as Juliet awakens?
7) Why does Juliet kill herself with Romeo's dagger?
8) How does the Prince find out what really happened?
9) What peace comes to Verona at the end of the play?
10) What is the climax of the play?
Interpret These Quotes
"What light through yonder window breaks?"
"jests at scars that never felt a wound"
"for this alliance may so happy prove"
"O, be some other name! What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell so sweet."
RISE AND FALLING ACTION R&J
Exposition: Prologue~Act 1 Sc. 3
Rising Action: Act 1 Sc. 4 ~
1)What does Tybalt challenge Romeo to and what does he say?
2) Who else becomes a part of the conflict between Romeo and Tybalt and why?
3) How do Mercutio and Tybalt die?
4) What does Mercutio say before his death?
5) What is Romeo's reaction to banishment? Where will he go?
6) How does Juliet react to the news of Tybalt's death?
7) What is Juliet's reaction to the news she must marry Paris and what does her dad say?
8) Why does Lord Capulet tell Paris the marriage plans are made so suddenly?
9) Why does Juliet go to the Friar?
10) What is the Nurse's advice to Juliet?
Held 3,000 people
Performances on summer afternoons
The Rose Theater competed with the Globe was built close to an open sewage line and the place stank. Shakespeare’s famous line from R&J – “a rose by any other name would smell as sweet” – got roars of laughter.
Outside the City of London authorities banned theaters within London.
Entrance to the theater cost
1 penny = groundling, stood in front of the stage for whole play
2 pennies = sit on a bench
3 pennies = A cushion
12 pennies = Rich people sat in balconies beside/over the stage
Eating and drinking (even alcohol) were very common in the theater. Unfortunately, no bathrooms; however it did have a floor... and walls...
Groundlings were not silent watchers: they interacted with characters
Productions at the Globe included special effects. Figures could come out of, or fall into, a pit in the floor. Also a trap in the ceiling allowed ghosts and angels to fly to and from the heavens.
In 1642 the Puritan Parliament issued an ordinance suppressing all stage plays. The Globe Theater was demolished in 1644.
Elizabethan theatre explained by Willy!
What symbols occur throughout the play?
the message that the author tries to convey through all of the literary elements in the work
The Power and Passion of Love and Hate
False Love (Infatuation) vs. True Love
The Individual vs. Society
The Problem of Time
Fate and Forebodings
Civil Order vs. Civil Disobedience
Innocence and Experience
Darkness and Light
1) Define theme and symbolism
2) Create a Plot Outline for Romeo and Juliet - Include one symbol, three examples of your assigned theme, and one event per part of the plot outline.
3) Include one example of how a secondary character adds a literary device to the play.
4) Then present your outline and project to the class.
Sex and Insults
Shakespeare's plays needed to appeal to groundlings and the nobles, so he used the age old trick of "sexual innuendos, double entendres, and malapropism"
He also uses comic relief, allusion, similes, metaphor, dramatic irony, foreshadowing, and more literary devices.
a drama that is based on human suffering
the main character or characters experience a profound loss or injustice
something in the character of the person that leads to his/her downfall
Man vs. Man:
Romeo kills a Tybalt
Man vs. Self:
Romeo struggles with strong feeling of despair because Rosaline doesn’t love him
Man vs. Society:
Romeo and Juliet come from feuding families. They do everything in secret because society is against them
Man vs. Nature:
Romeo has to fight nature when he is banished -poison
Conflict in Romeo & Juliet
a character who contrasts another character in order to highlight
Romeo and Mercutio are character foils of one another, because Romeo focuses on love and religion while Mercutio makes sexual jokes.
a humorous scene to help relieve tension
Since Romeo & Juliet is a tragedy, comic relief is necessary to break up the tense moments. Look for comic relief from the characters Mercutio and the Nurse.
a figure of speech in which contradictory items appear side by side
a modern example is “jumbo shrimp”
a comment made by a character and heard by the audience, but not other characters.
a long, dramatic speech by one speaker
when a character talks to himself or herself
Most of the rest of the play is in:
Blank Verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter
a direct result of soliloquy, monologue, and aside
when the audience understands a situation that the character does not
In Act 3, Scene 1, after Tybalt calls Romeo a villain, Romeo responds:
“I do protest I never injured thee,
But love thee better than thou canst devise.”
Tybalt has no idea that Romeo is now related to him by marriage.
a person says or writes one thing and means another
"Come you to make confession.."
Name that Quote
"O serpent heart hid with a flowering face!
Did ever dragon keep so fair a cave?
"I conjure thee by Rosaline’s bright eyes,
By her high forehead and her scarlet lip,
By her fine foot, straight leg, and quivering thigh, And the demesnes that there adjacent lie."
"O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name;"
’Tis but thy name that is my enemy.
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
"Death, that hath sucked the honey of thy breath,
Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty.
Thou art not conquered."
"These violent delights have violent ends
And, in their triumph die, like fire and powder."
"It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!"
"My ears have yet not drunk a hundred words..."
"Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?"
What is the tragedy?
Who are the tragic heroes?
What are the tragic flaws?
Prologue / Act 1
1. Where and when does the play take place?
2. Who speaks the Prologue?
3. What is the purpose of the Prologue?
4. In what poetic form is the Prologue?
5. Why do you think Shakespeare tells us how the story is going to end?
6. What themes are established in the Prologue?
1. Sampson and Gregory are Capulet servants strolling through the street. What makes the first 10 lines funny?
2. How are Gregory and Sampson a foil?
3. What does Sampson do to get the Montague’s servants mad?
4. How are Benvolio and Tybalt foils of each other?
5. Lady Capulet insults her husband in line 71. How is she insulting him?
6. How many times have the Montagues and Capulets disturbed the peace?
7. In lines 90-91, what does Prince Escalus say will happen if a fight breaks out again?
8. When we first see Romeo, he shows all the signs of a Petrarchan Lover — someone who is in love with the idea of being in love. How does Romeo act, according to Montague?
9. When describing his feelings to Benvolio, Romeo uses oxymorons — pairs of contradictory words — in lines 169-176 and 186-188. Why does he speak in oxymorons?
10. ou learn Romeo is suffering from unrequited love — he loves someone who does not love him back. What suggestion does Benvolio make to Romeo to help him get over his unrequited love for Rosaline?
1. In this scene, Lord Capulet talks to Paris about marrying his daughter Juliet. What two reasons does he give for not wanting Juliet to marry at this time (lines 8-15)?
2. Describe whom Lord Capulet will let Juliet marry (lines 17-19).
3. What does this reveal about Lord Capulet’s love for his daughter?
4. Why does Romeo agree to go the party (lines 102-103)?
1. How are Lady Capulet and the Nurse foils for each other?
2. When Lady Capulet asks Juliet how she feels about being married, what is Juliet’s answer (line 68), and what does it reveal about her character?
3. The Nurse and Lady Capulet are both excited and pleased by Paris’s proposal but for different reasons. The nurse says Paris is “a man of wax” and in line 97 states “No less! nay, bigger: women grow by men.” What does the Nurse see in Paris, and what does it reveal about her attitude toward love and marriage?
4. Lady Capulet’s lines from 83-96 compose a conceit — an extended, exaggerated comparison or metaphor between two unlike things. In this case, between Paris and a book that needs only a cover. What is Lady Capulet’s attitude toward love and marriage?
5. Explain Juliet’s answer to her mother in lines 99-101. What is her attitude toward love and marriage?
1. How are Romeo and Mercutio foils of each other?
2. What does Romeo think of Mercutio’s dream?
3. In lines 108-113, why does Romeo feel uneasy about going to the party?
4. What does Romeo mean in lines 114-115 in regard to “the steerage of [his] course”?
1. We learn from Romeo’s soliloquy in lines 41-50 that he is struck by love when he first sees Juliet. To what does Romeo compare Juliet?
2. Tybalt recognizes Romeo’s voice and tries to start a fight. What reason does Lord Capulet give for stopping Tybalt (lines 64-72)?
3. What do lines 80-86 reveal about Capulet’s relationship with Tybalt?
4. In lines 91-104, Romeo and Juliet speak to each other. Their lines form a sonnet. Why do you think Shakespeare does this?
1. Why does Mercutio makes fun of Romeo.
2. What do lines 6-21 tell you about Mercutio’s attitude toward love?
1. Romeo uses a metaphor between scars and wound. What does he mean?
2. As Romeo sits in his hiding place, he sees Juliet standing on the balcony. Romeo uses many metaphors in lines 2-25 comparing Juliet to light. Read the questions below and try to answer them.
A. Romeo repeats the light and dark images he introduced when he saw Juliet for the first time. Why does Romeo compare Juliet to the sun?
B. Romeo uses personification in lines 4-5. Why does Romeo want the sun to kill the moon?
C. Why is the moon envious?
D. In lines 24-25, why does Romeo wish to be the glove on Juliet’s hand?
3. In lines 33-36, Juliet is still unaware Romeo is nearby. What is Juliet saying in these lines?
4. What is Juliet’s attitude toward the feud that has separated the two families?
5. What is Juliet worried about in lines 85-106?
6. Why does Juliet object to Romeo’s swearing on the moon (lines 109-111)?
1. Friar Lawrence gives a lengthy soliloquy about nature and mankind. In lines 9-30, how is mankind like herbs?
2. The Friar can tell Romeo has been up all night and asks Romeo to speak plainly. What do you learn from lines 57-64?
3. How does the Friar react to this news (lines 65-80)?
4. In lines 90-92, what reason does Friar Lawrence give for agreeing to marry Romeo and Juliet?
1. In lines 34-85, Romeo and Mercutio make puns back and forth. What do their puns reveal about their relationship?
2. What does Mercutio mean in line 92?
3. In lines 112-119, what does Mercutio compare the Nurse to?
4. What do lines 128-133 let us know about the Nurse’s character?
5. What message does Romeo urge the Nurse to give to Juliet (lines 154-157)?
1. Juliet is very impatient to hear news from Romeo (lines 1-17). What images does she use in her soliloquy to express this?
2. The Nurse knows Juliet is impatient, but she waits to tell Juliet news of Romeo. Lines 38-44 suggest why the Nurse does not want to tell Juliet the news. What is the reason the Nurse waits to tell Juliet news of Romeo?
1. What is Friar Lawrence’s warning in lines 9-13?
1. In lines 36-37, Mercutio says, “make it a word and a blow.” How does Tybalt’s response in lines 38-39 let the audience know something is going to happen?
2. Mercutio tries to provoke Tybalt to fight (lines 36-37). Why doesn’t Tybalt want to fight him (line 52)?
3. After Tybalt insults Romeo, Romeo responds with lines 58-61. Explain his lines. What is the “reason” Romeo has for ignoring the insult?
4. In line 69, why does Romeo’s response to Tybalt anger Mercutio?
5. Romeo tries to stop Mercutio and Tybalt from fighting by reasoning with them (lines 82-84) What reason does Romeo give the men to stop fighting?
6. Even when he is dying, Mercutio continues to joke and to make puns. Explain the pun he makes in lines 93-95.
7. Read lines 96 and 102. How does the use of repetition affect what Mercutio says?
8. After Mercutio dies, why does Romeo decide to kill Tybalt in lines 118-125?
9. What does Romeo mean when he says, “O, I am fortune’s fool”?
10. Why does Lady Capulet want Romeo dead?
11. What is the Prince’s punishment for Romeo?
1. What does Juliet reveal in the soliloquy from lines 1-31?
2. The nurse does not speak clearly. In lines 65-69, who does Juliet believe is dead?
3. In Juliet’s soliloquy in lines 74-86, what emotions does she express?
1. What is Romeo’s reaction when he learns that he has been banished?
2. From the beginning of the play, Romeo acts impulsively. In what way is he still impulsive in this scene (lines 105-108)?
3. In Friar Lawrence’s soliloquy, he states specific qualities Romeo has. What are the specific qualities Friar Lawrence gives in lines 130-133?
4. What is Friar Lawrence’s plan in lines 146-154?
1. What is agreed to between Paris and Lord Capulet?
2. Why do they agree on Thursday rather than Wednesday?
3. Describe the mood of this scene compared to the previous scenes?
1. Why does Juliet question her mother’s arrival in lines 65-67?
2. From Juliet’s aside in line 81, what do you learn?
3. What double meaning is found in lines 93-102?
4. What is Juliet’s response when she is told the news that she is to marry Paris (lines 120-123)?
5. What is her mother’s reaction to Juliet’s response (lines 124-125)?
6. Why do you think Lady Capulet ends up telling Capulet about Juliet’s decision in lines 139-140?
7. What is Lord Capulet’s response to Juliet’s refusal to marry Paris?
8. What does the Nurse advise Juliet to do (lines 213-226)?
9. In her soliloquy in lines 236-244, what does Juliet decide about the Nurse?
1. Why is Paris visiting Friar Lawrence?
2. In line 26, Juliet says, “I will confess to you that I love him.” How is the use of “him” verbal irony?
3. The Friar asks Paris to leave so he and Juliet can be alone. Paris says, “God shield I should disturb devotion.” Why is this situational irony? What do you know, as the reader or audience, that Paris does not know?
4. In lines 51-68, what does Juliet promise if the wedding with Paris happens?
5. Summarize the plan to keep Juliet from marrying Paris.
1. In lines 25-26, Capulet states he is moving the wedding from Thursday to Wednesday. How does this interrupt the plans Juliet and the Friar made?
1. In lines 14-58, Juliet uses a long soliloquy. What is the soliloquy about?
2. In lines 32-58, what are some of the fears that Juliet has?
1. The nurse tries to wake Juliet in lines 1-10. Since you already know Juliet has drunk the potion, why is line 11 dramatic irony?
2. In lines 28-29, why does Capulet compare death to an “untimely frost” and Juliet to “the sweetest flower”?
3. What details in this scene reveal how much Lord Capulet, lady Capulet, and the Nurse love Juliet?
1. What dream does Romeo have at the beginning of this scene (lines 1-11)?
2. In lines 17-23, what news does Balthasar bring?
3. Romeo believes Balthasar is lying and goes against Balthasar’s council in lines 27-29: “I do beseech, you sir, have patience. Your looks are pale and wild and do import some misadventure.” What tragic flaw is Romeo demonstrating by his actions?
4. In lines 34-57, Romeo talks to himself and delivers a long soliloquy. What does he profess in these lines?
1. Why does Friar John say he was unable to deliver the letter to Romeo?
2. Bad luck seems to keep preventing Romeo and Juliet from being together. What does this suggest about fate?
1. What is revealed about Paris’s character from lines 16-17?
2. In lines 35-36, why do you think Shakespeare puts such harsh words in Romeo’s mouth?
3. In lines 45-48, what specific imagery do Romeo’s words paint?
4. In lines 52-53, what does Paris suppose Romeo will do?
5. In lines 94-96, what does Romeo notice about Juliet?
6. How do lines 94-96 heighten the audience’s sense of tragedy?
7. In lines 153-154, the Friar talks about a greater power. What power do you think he is referring to?
8. In lines 169-170, what human trait and weakness does Juliet demonstrate?
9. How are the murders and suicides in this scene related to the feud?
10. In your opinion, how much blame do you think Friar Lawrence deserves for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet?
11. What does the Prince mean when he says, “And I, for winking at your discords too”?
12. What do Lord Capulet and Lord Montague learn from their children’s deaths?
Give an Example
with the page number
4) Dramatic Irony
8) Comic Relief
9) Verbal Irony
Define that Word