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Breast Cancer

Information
by

Jody F

on 14 September 2014

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Transcript of Breast Cancer

What is Breast Cancer?
Main Causes
Aging
Genetics
Obesity
High alcohol consumption
History of breast cancer/ past experiences
Radiation exposure
Giving birth after the age of 30
Smoking

Diagnosis
Diagnosis is the process of identifying the nature of a health problem by testing its symptoms
Diagnostic tests for breast cancer are usually done when:
The symptoms of breast cancer are present
The doctor suspects breast cancer after talking with a person about their health and completing a physical examination
a screening mammography suggests a problem with the breast

Examinations
Diagnostic Tests:
Medical history & physical examination
Diagnostic mammography
Ultrasound
Biopsy

Staging and other tests:
Blood chemistry tests
Bone scan
Liver ultrasound
Chest x-ray
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Treatment
Decisions

Treatment decisions for breast cancer are based on the following:
The stage of the breast cancer
If the woman has reached menopause
The hormone receptor status of the cancer
The HER2 status of the cancer
The risk for recurrence (with early stage breast cancer)
The overall health of the woman
The woman's personal decision about certain treatment

surgery
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal therapy
Biological therapy
Bisphosphonates
Follow-up after treatment is finished
Side Effects
Breast Cancer
Prevention
Although breast cancer can be passed down through genetics, there are some lifestyle changes that can significantly lower the risk of developing breast cancer.

To lower the risks, women are encouraged to:
lower the amount of alcohol consumption
take part in physical activities 5 days a week
follow a healthy and well-balanced diet
be aware of their weight
As well, women should consider talking to their doctors about breast cancer screening and the use of medication.
Statistics
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in Canadian women.
Estimations for 2013
• 23,800 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. This represents 26% of all new cancer cases in women in 2013.
• 5,000 women will die from breast cancer. This represents 14% of all cancer deaths in women in 2013.
• On average, 65 Canadian women will be diagnosed with breast cancer every day.
• On average, 14 Canadian women will die from breast cancer every day.
• 200 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 60 will die from it.

Systemic Therapy
Systemic therapy is the primary therapy used to treat breast cancer. It is the general name given to treatments such as, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy, and vaccination. Systemic therapy is normally used to kill cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. It can also be used to try to cure early stages of breast cancer to try to avoid surgery and be used to treat any left over cancer cells after the surgery.
Risk Factors

vs.

Possible Risk Factors

vs.

Unrelated Factors


Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy is mostly used after the surgery, when there is still some tumor left. Radiation kills cancer cells in the breast and sometimes in the areas around it as well.

Some side effects of radiation therapy can be skin redness, irritation of the skin, and feeling tired, destruction of healthy cells and tissues in the area of treatment.
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is usually an injection into the patients body. Chemotherapy interferes with growth of the cancer cell, but it also interferes with healthy cells.
Hormonal Therapy
Hormonal Therapy - helps stop the growth of cancer cells and may be used for 5 years for women who have receptor-positive cancer. Some side effects of hormonal therapy are hot fleshes and irregular menstruation.
Personal history of breast cancer
Family history of breast cancer
Dense breasts
Rare genetic conditions
Reproductive history
Exposure to ionizing radiation
Hormone replacement therapy
Hormonal contraceptives
Alcohol
Being obese

Screening
Screening is checking or testing for a disease in a group of people who don't show any symptoms of the disease. Screening tests help find breast cancer before any symptoms develop.
Possible Risk Factors Include...

Physical inactivity
Adult weight gain
Smoking and second-hand smoke
Factors not associated with Breast Cancer
Antiperspirants and deodorants
Abortion
Breast implants
Stress

Risk Factors Include...
Physical inactivity
Adult weight gain
Smoking and second-hand smoke
A lump in the breast is the most common first sign (sometimes it can only be seen on a mammogram)

it may be hard or tender and is present all of the time

does not get smaller

pain is generally a sign of a non-cancerous (benign) condition

Symptoms
What is Cancer?
Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body

Breast Cancer is a type of cancer that develops from the breast cells

It is one of the most common cancer among Canadian women
Screening Mammography
Breast Screening Programs
Clinical Breast Exam (CBE)
Screening Mammography
is the most reliable method of finding breast cancer early.

Mammography is a low-dose x-ray of the breast and the picture developed during this process is called a
mammogram
.

The purpose of the mammography is to find lumps or abnormal areas of breast tissue that may be too small to be felt by hand. It monitors changes to the breast over time, and helps to detect breast cancer at an early stage.


A
Clinical Breast Exams (CBE)
is a thorough examination of the breast by a trained healthcare professional to check for abnormalities. This can help doctors diagnose an abnormality in the breast or arm pit (axilla).
Biological Therapy
Biological therapy - is a treatment which uses drugs that change the way cancer cells interact, and stops cancer cells sending signals that make them divide and grow. There are several types of biological therapy which are now used to treat breast cancer.
There are both pros and cons of getting treatments for breast cancer. For instance, chemotherapy and radiation destroy constantly dividing breast cancer cells, but at the same time, these treatments can also affect and destroy healthy cells.
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness and fatigue
Mouth soreness
Hair loss
Weight gain
Premature menopause
Lower resistance to infections
Bleeding

Breast Cancer Survivors
Giuliana Rancic
Christina Applegate
Sheryl Crow
Cynthia Nixon
Robin Roberts
Suzanne Somers
Wanda Sykes
Kathy Bates
Carly Simon
Olivia Newton-John
Maura Tierney
Kylie Minogue
Ann Romney
Maggie Smith
Kate Jackson
Shirley Temple
Everyday, thousands of patients are fighting to overcome breast cancer
Bibliography
http://www.fccc.edu/cancer/types/breast/treatment/systemic.html
http://chealth.canoe.ca/channel_condition_info_details.asp?disease_id=23&channel_id=12&relation_id=1619
http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/breast/overview/?region=on
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/breast
http://wonderwall.msn.com/movies/celeb-breast-cancer-survivors-15670.gallery
http://www.cbcf.org/ontario/Pages/default.aspx
Support Breast Cancer
http://www.cbcf.org/ontario/Pages/default.aspx
Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
The breast cancer research community (UNC researchers) has created a genetic test to help doctors predict which breast cancer patients are most likely to survive the disease and which treatments many be the most effective in increasing those chances of survival. By specifically measuring the activity level of a small subset of the more than 20,000 genes that many be "turned on or turned off" within the tumor, the test can give the patients more accurate idea of how their disease might progress.
The new test is being designed to be performed using a new generation of equipment that will be incorporated into many hospital laboratories.
New Discoveries
Treatment Options
Presentation By:
Jody, Emily and Jyoti
Full transcript