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APA Formatting and Style Guide

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Elsa Garcia

on 23 February 2015

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Transcript of APA Formatting and Style Guide

The Elements of Public Speaking
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Prof. Elsa García
APA STYLE
What is APA Style?
The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences.

APA regulates:
Stylistics
In-text citations
References



Language
Language in an APA paper should be:


Clear
: be specific in descriptions and explanations


Concise
: condense information when you can


Plain
: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language



General APA Format
Your essay should:
be typed,
double-spaced,
have 1” margins,
use 10-12pt. Standard font (ex. Times New Roman), and
be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5”x 11”)



[Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp.87-88 in the APA manual).]


General APA Format
Every page of your essay should:
Include a page header (Title, all caps) in the upper left-hand corner and
the page number in the upper right


General APA Format
Your essay should include four major sections:

Title Page
Page Header:

(use Insert Page Header)
title flush left + page
number flush right.
Title:

(in the upper half of the
page, centered)
name (no title or degree)
+ affiliation (university, etc).
Reference Page
Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.

Double-space reference entries

Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines

Order entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author of each work

References: Basics
Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by initials)

EX:“Smith, J.Q.”

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the Purdue OWL saved my essay.

References: Basics
Capitalize all major words in journal titles

Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals

Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
Making the Reference List
APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:

1.- Identify the type of source:
Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage?

2.- Find a sample citation for this type of source.
Check a textbook or the OWL APA Guide:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

3.- “Mirror” the sample.

4.- Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order and that the subsequent lines are indented (Recall References: Basics).


In-text Citation: Basics
In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.

Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:
the author’s name and the date of publication

for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number

In-Text Citation: Quotations
When quoting:
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase.

Include the author’s name, year of publication, and page number.

Keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information.

In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
Provide the author’s last name and the year of
publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.
In-Text Citation: Summary of Paraphrase
Include the author’s name in the signal phrase, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.
In-Text Citation: Summary of Paraphrase
When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:
In-Text Citation: Signal Words
Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:


According to Xavier (2008), “….” (p. 3).

Xavier (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3).

Use such signal verbs such as:


acknowledged, contended, maintained,
responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.

Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events.

In-Text Citation: Two or More Works
When the parenthetical citation includes two or
more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list—the author’s name, the year of publication—separated by a semi-colon.
In-Text Citation: Works with Two Authors
When citing a work with two authors, use

In the signal phrase
, use “and” in between the authors’ names




In parenthesis
, use “&” between names

In-Text Citation: Works with 3-5 Authors
When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.


(Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Harklau et al., 1993)
In-Text Citation: Works with 6+ Authors
When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.”

Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….

(Smith et al., 2006)

In-Text Citation: Unknown Author
When citing a work of unknown author:
use the source’s full title in the signal phrase
cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.

According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008)
OR
(“Indiana,” 2008)

Titles:
Articles and Chapters = “ ”
Books and Reports = italicize
In-Text Citation: Organization
When citing an organization:

mention the organization the first time you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation.




If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.


In-Text Citation: Same Last Name / Author
When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names.

(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)

When citing two or more works by the same author and published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) after the year of publication to order the references.

Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants…
In-Text Citation: Personal Communication
When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.











Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
In-Text Citation: Electronic Sources
When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading.
Headings
APA uses a system of five heading levels

Headings
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Tables
Label tables with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and title appear on separate lines above the table, flush-left and single-spaced.

Cite a source in a note below the table.

Table 1
Internet users in Europe

Note: The data are adapted from “The European Union and Russia” (2007). Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
Figures
Label figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and the title appear on the same line below the figure, flush-left .

You might provide an additional title centered above the figure.

Cite the source below the label and the title.

Figure 1. Internet users in Europe. Adapted from The European Union and Russia: Statistical comparison by Eurostat Statistical Books, 2007, Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
Additional Resources
The Purdue OWL:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu


APA’s website:
http://www.apastyle.org


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