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Elements of Argument
Transcript of Elements of Argument
Donna Haisty Winchell.
Elements of Argument: A
Text and Reader. 8th Ed.
Bedford St. Martin's. New
York, 2006. 9-24. the art of influencing others, through the medium of reasoned discourse, to believe or act as we wish them to believe or act (9). or . . . more simply, "An argument is a statement or statements offering support for a claim" (9). An argument is composed of at least three parts:
the warrant Source may appear as the thesis statement
may not be stated directly There are 3 types of claims: claims of fact
claims of value
claims of policy - assert that a condition has existed, exists, or will exist and are based on facts or data that the audience will accept as being objectively verifiable. Claims of fact . . . The present cocaine epidemic is not unique. From 1885 to the 1920s, cocaine was as widely used as it is today.
Horse racing is the most dangerous sport.
California will experience colder, stormier weather for the next ten years. Examples: All of these claims MUST be supported by data. Claims of value . . . attempt to prove that some things are more or less desirable than others
express approval or disapproval of standards of taste and morality
commonly seen in advertisements and reviews, but can emerge whenever people argue about what is good or bad, beautiful or ugly The opera Tannhauser provides a splendid viewing as well as listening experience.
Football is one of the most dehumanizing experiences a person can face.
Ending a patient's life intentionally is absolutely forbidden on moral grounds. Examples - Dave Meggyesy - Presidential Commission on Medical Ethics, 1983 Claims of policy . . . assert that specific policies should be instituted as solutions to problems
the expressions should, must, or ought to usually appears in the statement
call for analysis of both fact and value Prisons should be abolished because they are crime-manufacturing concerns.
Our first step must be to immediately establish and advertise drastic policies designed to bring our own population under control.
The New York City Board of Education should make sure that qualified women appear on any new list of candidates for Chancellor of Education. - Paul Ehrlich, biologist Examples includes:
motivational appeals facts, statistics, and expert testimony appeals to the values and attitudes of the audience (to win support) may be stated or unstated: If the arguer believes that the audience shares his assumption, he may feel it unnecessary to express it. If he thinks the audience is doubtful or hostile, he may decide to state the assumption to emphasize its importance or argue for it validity. The warrant allows the reader to make the same connection between support and the claim that the author does. Warrant: Support: Adoption of a vegetarian diet leads to healthier and longer life. The authors of Becoming a Vegetarian Family say so. The authors of Becoming a Vegetarian Family are reliable sources of information on diet. Claim: Support: Warrant: Claim-Support-Warrant What is the warrant that links this support to this claim? Laws making marijuana illegal should be repealed. People should have the right to use any substance they wish. No laws should prevent citizens from exercising their rights. Purpose: Audience: Context: Why? Under what conditions? to whom? All arguments are composed with an audience in mind.
In writing your own arguments, you should assume that there is a reader who may not agree with you.
Providing abundant evidence and making logical connections between the parts of an argument MAY NOT be enough to win agreement from the audience . . . that is where ethos (author credibility) and pathos (appeal to emotion) come into play.