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The Guilded Age

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Joel Horton

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of The Guilded Age

The Gilded Age
1899 and after
Grants Inauguration
Be came 18th president
Served from 1869-1876
Lead Union forces during the war
Administration plagued by scandal and corruptness
Wyoming-Women vote
Nevada Statehood
Became the 36th state on October 31, 1864
Telegraphed Constitution to congress
Statehood was rushed to add three electoral votes to Lincoln's reelection and add to Republican majority in congress
Wyoming Territory gave women the vote in 1869
Female voters did not neglect homes, abandon children or unsex themselves as many antisuffragists warned
Midway Island
Seward's Folly
Secretary of State William H. Seward signed treaty with Russia
Bought Alaska for $7 million
Senate ratified treaty in April 9, 1867 by one vote
Discovry of gold in 1898 helped boost the slow support for Alaska
2.4 square mile island in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly equidistant between Asia and North America
Captain William Reynolds of USS Lackawanna took possession o the atoll in August 1867
Is the first Pacific Island annexed by the U.S. Government
Knights of Labor
One of the most important labor organizations of nineteenth century
Promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman
Contributed to the tradition of labor protests in America
Most important leader was Terrence V. Powderly
Japan opens for trade
Japan had adhered to isolation for 2 centuries
In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry got Japanese officials to sign a treaty, allowing US ships to refuel at two ports
By 1858 America and Japan had commenced trade
The Grange
A farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for the political and economic advantages
National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Successful in regulating railroads and grain warehouses
Homestead Act
In 1862, allowed settlers to aquire up to 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years and then paying a $30 dollar fee
To encourage rapid filling of empty spaces and provide stimulus to the family farm
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854, negotiated by Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Ended Japan's 200 year period of economic isolation
Established an American consulate in Japan
Secured American coaling rights in Japanese ports
Missionaries in Hawaii
Missionaries established schools and tried to promote Christianity
Missionaries introduced new technology like western medicine
They increased relations between Hawaii and US, which paved the foundation for future relations
National Prohibition Party
Minor party in 1869
In response to increase of liquor intake by Americans after the Civil War
Increase in immigrants and growing cities also increased drinking
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Founded by Henry Bergh in 1866
Known for defending abused carriage horses in New York City
Comstock Lode
First major US discovery of silver ore
Located under Virginia City, Nevada
Prospectors rushed to the area to stake their claims
Mining camps thrived in the area and became bustling centers of wealth
Fetterman Massacre
In 1866, tribe of Ogala Sioux under Chief Red Cloud were provoked by the building of the Bozeman Trail through their hunting grounds in Montana
They massacred US army unit commanded by Captain W. J. Fetterman
Sand Creek Massacre
Atrocity in the Indian Was that occured on November 29th, 1864
Colorado Territory Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyene and Arapaho, killing and estimated 150 men, women, and children
Sand Creek Massacre was one of the most emotionally charged and controversial events in American history, a tragedy reflective of its time and place.
Great Sioux Reservation
Indian reservation in the Dakota Territory
Granted by the government after the massacre of Fetterman's troops on the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming
Native Americans were forced onto reservations with the promise of being left alone with food and supplies
There was usually a shortage of supplies
Andrew Dickson White and Ezra Cornell established Cornell University in Ithaca, New York in 1865
They met in the New York State Senate
Cornell was able to provide the initial funds needed to start the univerist
The Nation
Origin of the Species
A work of scientific literature by Chalres Darwin
It is the foundation of evolutionary biology
It introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve through a process known as natural selection
Many rejected this idea because it included evidence that humans evolved from a chimpanzee like animal
The Nation is America's oldest continuously published weekly magazine
It was founded in 1865 in New York with Joseph H. Richards as publisher and Edwin Lawrence Godkin as editor
It discusses politics and originally supported civil service reform, a stable currency, and the elimination of protective tariffs
Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer was a famous American realist painter
He is best known for his marine paintings
He is also known for his oil paintings and his mastery of watercolors
Westinghouse Air Brake
The Westinghouse Air Brake Company was founded by George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania
Earlier that year he had invented the air brake which was used on trains at the time
Standard Oil
Standard Oil was an oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company
It was founded by John D. Rockefeller, who became the richest man in the world
He used horizontal and vertical integration techniques to take over competing companies and become the largest oil refining company in the world
It was broken up into 33 smaller companies
Steel Rails
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel
People like Cornelius Vanderbilt started using the lighter and stronger steel to construct rails for railroads
Mary Cassatt
Mary Cassatt was one of the leading American artists in the Impressionist movement
She lived much of her adult life in Paris, France
Her paintings often included images of the private and social life of women, and she put special emphasis on the bond between mother and child
Boss Tweed in the NY Times
The New York Times ran a series of news stories exposing massive corruption by members of Tammany Hall, the political machine in New York City run by William "Boss" Tweed
It had evidence that Tweed had stolen the public's money, an estimated sum of $6 million, but today it's thought to be over $30 million
Twine Binders
Woodhull and Claflin's Weekly
Victoria Claflin Woodhull was an American leader of the Women's Suffrage Movement
Woodhull was an advocate of free love; to marry, divorce, and bear children without government interference
She was the first woman to start a weekly newspaper and an activist for women's rights and labor reforms
In 1872, she was the first female candidate for President of the United States.
Thomas Eakins
The twine binder was invented by Charles Withington,
His original invention cut small-grain crops and tied the stems together with wire
Wire had many problems so it was soon replaced with twine to tie bundles together
Born July 25th, 1844 in Philadelphia
He was an America realist painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator
He is widely acknowledged as the one of if not the most important artist in American History
Eakins works came from life, choosing the people of his hometown of Philadelphia as his subjects
He painted several hundred portraits, usually of prominent people in the arts, sciences, medicine, and clergy
Horace Greeley for President
Horace Greeley was editor of the New York Tribune newspaper and founder of the Liberal Republican Party
He used this to support reform movements
Nominated by Liberal Republicans for President in 1872 against Grant's re-election
He lost the election
He died prior to the counting of elctoral votes
General Amnesty Act
Enacted on May 22, 1872
The General Amnesty Act was a United States federal law that removed voting restrictions and office holding disqualification to the secessionists that rebelled against the US in the Civil War, except for some 500 higher ranking Confederate Officers
Victoria Woodhull Votes
Credit Mobilier Scandal
At this time, the US Gov't was granting companies subsidies in cash and land to build railroads across the US
Credit Mobilier was a company that was being awarded cash and land to build railways, only problem, they were not building railways; instead, the money was going directly to the managers of Credit Mobilier who were also a part of Union Pacific
Stocks and bonds were given to congressmen as a bribe to ensure cash and land kept going to the company and to also keep off suspicions being raised in Congress
Victoria Woodhull was an America leader ot the women's suffrage movement
She was an activist for women's rights and labor reforms
She was the first female candidate for president, and she was part of the Equal Rights Party
She did not receive any electoral votes
Montgomery Wards
Founded by Aaron Montgomery Ward in 1872
It was a retail enterprise that had catalogs of merchandise, they would mail purchased orders to customers
People were first skeptical about buying something before seeing it
It began to catch on because it allowed rural citizens to buy diverse city goods
It later became a department store
A national park largely located in Wyoming but extending into Idaho and Montana
It was established by Congress and signed into law by President Grant
Ferdinand V. Hayden explored the region and compiled a comprehensive report of Yellowstone
His report helped convince Congress to make Yellowstone a national park
Grant's Second Term
During his second term the economy struggled from the Panic of 1873
Investigations exposed corruption scandals in the administration
By the time he left the white house, his Reconstruction plans were being undone
Grant nominated Ward Hunt and Morrison Waite to the Supreme Court during his second term
Panic of 1873
It was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in America
The panic was triggered by the bankruptcy of the orthern Pacific Railroad, backed by leading financier Jay Cooke
89 of the 364 railroads in the US went bankrupt
Crop prices plunged and many workers were layed off or received sharp reductions in pay
Silver Coin Crisis
The Coinage Act passed in 1873 embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver
Silver miners were very angry because silver prices decreased significantly
The act reduced the domestic money supply, hurting farmers and anyone else who had heavy debt
It partially impacted the Panic of 1873 because it caused people to believe that the money supply was not stable
Comstock Law
Made it illegal to send any obscene materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information
The law is named after anti-obscenity proponent Andrew Comstock
It was seen by many as Comstock stepping out of the bounds of his llegal power
Even some anatomy textbooks being sent to medical students were taken up, under this law
Colt 45 Peacemaker
Single action revolver with a rotating cylinder holding 6 metallic cartridges
"The Gun That Won The West"
It was the primary US military Sidearm at the time
Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company designed and produced many variations of their first revolver
"Gilded Age" Coined by Mark Twain
The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today
Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner coined the term
The book satirizes greed and political corruption in the post Civil War era
Twain and Warner came up with the name from Shakespeare's
King John
Whiskey Ring
Resumption Act
A scandal exposed in 1874 that operated in St. Louis, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Chicago, New Orleans, and Peoria
Involved diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors
The group was able to illegally make millions in federal taxes on liquor
The Whiskey Ring was seen by many as a sign of corruption under the Republican governments that took power across the nation following the American Civil War
Glidden - Barbwire
A law which restore the US to the gold standard through the redemption of legal-tender notes for specie
Reversed inflation policies promoted directly after the Civil War
Called for reducing the amount of greenbacks in circulation to $300 million and for replacing fractional paper currency with silver coins
Civil Rights Act
Joseph Glidden was an American farmer who forever altered the development of the west
He created barbed-wire by using coffee mill to create the barbs
He received the patent for his invention in 1874, and he created the Barb Fence Company in Dekalb, Illinois
He died one of the richest men in America
Chautauqua Movement
Chautauqua was an education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
People in isolated ranching and farming areas would naturally be hungry for education, culture, and entertainment
It brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers, preachers and specialists of the day
Guaranteed blacks equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation and prohibited exclusion from jury duty
The law was rarely enforced and the Supreme Court determined the act to be unconstitutional in 1883
Last civil rights bill to be signed into law in the US until the Civil Rights Act of 1957
Reciprocity Treaty
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Women organization that operated in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work as well as matters of social reform such as suffrage
Originally organized on December 23, 1873 in Hillsboro, Ohio
The purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" via evangelical Christianity
A free trade agreement between US and the Hawaiian Kingdom
Negotiated between King Kalākaua and Henry A. P. Carter and Elisha Hunt Allen
Hawaii got access to the US market for products and in return got lands in the Pu'u Loa area
Treaty led to large US investments in sugar plantations in Hawaii
Gold in South Dakota
Molly Maguires
The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States
The first arrival was a force led by George Custer to investigate reports that the area contained gold
The large placer gold deposits were found in Deadwood Gulch, and thousands flocked to the new town
John Wesley Powell
He is famous for the Powell Geographic Expedition, a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers, including the first known passage through the Grand Canyon
Powell served as second director of the US Geological Survey and proposed policies that were beneficial to his evaluation of conditions
Powell was a champion of land preservation and conservation
A secret society of Irish and Irish America coal miners in Pennsylvania
Formed because of dangerous working conditions and resistance of coal mine owners to prevent union activity
They used intimidation and violence to try and get better working conditions and wages
Trials were held in 1876, 24 convicted and ten were hung
Tong Wars
Series of violent disputes fought among rival Chinese Tong factions centered in San Francisco's Chinatown
Each Tong faction had payed soldiers known as boo how doy who fought in alleys and streets over control of opium, prostitution, gambling, and territory
In the 1876 Presidential Elections, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was running against Democrat Samuel J. Tilden
Tilden had won 184 electoral votes, and Hayes had won 165, but there was still 20 unresolved votes
An informal deal, The Compromise of 1877, gave Hayes the remaining votes and making him President, but Republicans agreed to remove all troops from the South allowing Southern Democrats to take back over again
Colorado Statehood
The Colorado Territory was organized originally because of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush
President Grant promoted statehood for Colorado but Congress was opposed because they wanted to focus on reconstruction
Colorado finally became a state towards the end of Grant's presidency
The first bi-directional transmission of clear speech was made by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson
Bell worked on the design and continuously improved upon his telephone
In 1876 the first long distance, 10 mile, phone call was made by Bell to his assistant
Bell was able to patent his design
Once commercial the telephone was quickly adopted by businesses and wealthier citizens
Nez Perce Migration
Band of the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and their allies fought against the US army because they refused to give up their lands and move to a reservation
They fled north to seek help from Sitting Bull who was in Canada to avoid capture as well
They were pursued by the US army and after many skirmishes they were forced to surrender
White Bird, chief of the Lamtáama band of the Nez Perce tribe, was able to escape with others and lead them to Sitting Bull's camp in Canada
Little Big Horn
Fight between forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes against the 7th Calvary Regiment of the US army led by General George Armstrong Custer
It was an overwhelming victory for the Indians, 268 dead and 55 wounded for the US
General Custer was one of those
Battle became known as Custer's Last Stand to gain American support for the Great Sioux War
Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins University was founded in Baltimore, Maryland and named after its benefactor, philanthropist Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins also founded John Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
His fortune came primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
He even founded the Johns Hopkins Colored Children Orphan Asylum
Compromise of 1877
The compromise granted undetermined votes to Rutherford B. Hayes, making him president
In return all federal troops were removed from former Confederate States
Republicans promised a transcontinental railroad, the appointment of one Democrat in Hayes's cabinet, and legislation to help industrialize the South and get them back on their feet
End of Reconstruction
The Nation faced many problems from the Depression of 1873 to the rise of violent groups like the Ku Klux Klan
Democrats regained firm control of the House in the 1874 elections
More and more people grew skeptical about the goals of Reconstruction
With the Compromise of 1877, all federal troops were removed from Southern States, marking the end of Reconstruction
Railroad Strike
Protesting steep wage cuts during depression that had begun in 1873, thousands of railroad workers walked off the job
Paralyzed the US transportation network and brought rail travel and commerce to a halt
Pennsylvania's governor sent in state militia to break the strike, workers reacted by burning railroad property and overturning locomotives
In all it left more than 50 dead and caused $40 million in damage
Munn v. Illinois
A United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture
Allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation
Device introduced in 1877 for the recording and reproduction of sound recordings
The recordings played on such a device consist of waveforms that are engraved onto a rotating cylinder or disc
As the cylinder or disc rotates, a stylus or needle traces the waveforms and vibrates to reproduce the recorded sound waves
John Singer Sargent
An American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation"
Created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings
Sargent practiced his own form of Realism
Greenback Labor Party
An American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology which was active between 1874 and 1889
The party fielded Presidential tickets three times — in the elections of 1876, 1880, and 1884, before fading away
Its platform was to see the government solely control the American monetary system, and it should not be backed by a gold or silver reserve
Bland-Alison Act
The Bland–Allison Act was an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars
Bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, but Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law
Light Bulb
An electric light which produces light with a filament wire heated to a high temperature by an electric current passing through it, until it glows
Thomas Edison invented the first commercially practical incandescent light
Specie Payments Resume
The Specie Payment Resumption Act of January 14, 1875, was a law in the United States which restored the nation to the gold standard
Salvation Army
An international charitable organization and Christian denomination church
Its founders Catherine and William Booth sought to bring salvation to the poor, destitute and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs"
Runs charity shops, operates shelters for the homeless, and provides disaster relief and humanitarian aid in 126 countries
Christian Science Church
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements
It was developed in the United States by Mary Baker Eddy in 1875 when she wrote Science and Health
As of 2008 there was a worldwide membership of 100,000–400,000
Dumb-Bell Tenement
The 1879 law required that every inhabitable room have a window opening to plain air
They were built in great numbers to accommodate waves of immigrating Europeans. The early 21st century side streets of Manhattan's Lower East Side are still lined with numerous dumbbell structures
Progress and Poverty
Written by Henry George in 1879
Book is a treatise on the cyclical nature of an industrial economy and its remedies
Examines various proposed strategies to prevent business depressions, unemployment, and poverty
Carlisle Indian School
Flagship Indian boarding school in the United States from 1879 through 1918
First federally funded off-reservation Indian boarding school
It was founded on the principle that Native Americans were the equals of European-Americans
Belief that Native American children immersed in mainstream Euro-American culture would learn skills to advance in society
Daisy Miller
A novella by Henry James that first appeared in Cornhill Magazine in June–July 1878
Portrays the courtship of the beautiful American girl Daisy Miller
This novella serves as both a psychological description of the mind of a young woman and an analysis of the traditional views of a society where she is a clear outsider
A trust is a relationship whereby property is held by one party for the benefit of another
An owner placing property into trust turns over part of his or her bundle of rights to the trustee, separating the property's legal ownership and control from its equitable ownership and benefits
Gospel of Wealth
An article written by Andrew Carnegie that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich
He believed the wealthy needed to redistribute their surplus in a responsible and thoughtful manner
Southern Textile Mills
Textile mills sprang up throughout the foothills of the Appalachian mountains, an area called the Southern Piedmont, which stretches from Virginia to Alabama
Mills grew in urban settings
By the end of the second decade of the twentieth century, more Southerners worked in textile mills than most other occupations
The Combine
A combine is a large, self-propelled agricultural machine used to harvest grain crops
The combine performs two, and sometimes more, basic functions of harvesting: first it reaps (cuts) the crop, and then it threshes it, separating the kernels of grain from the seed coverings and other debris (chaff)
Ben Hur
A novel by Lew Wallace published on November 12, 1880 by Harper & Brothers
Considered "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century"
The story recounts the adventures of Judah Ben-Hur, a Jewish prince and merchant in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 1st century
A Century of Dishonor
A non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson first published in 1881 that chronicled the experiences of Native Americans in the United States
It was an attempt to change government policy toward Native Americans at a time when effects of the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act had begun to draw the attention of the public
Garfield Inauguration
James A. Garfield as the 20th President of the United States took place on March 4, 1881
Garfield Assassination
The killing of James Garfield took place in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 1881, at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station
Garfield was shot by Charles J. Guiteau at 9:30 am, less than four months into Garfield's term as the our 20th President
He died 11 weeks after the shooting
Arthur Inauguration
The inauguration of Chester A. Arthur as the 21st President of the United States took place on September 20, 1881
The inauguration marked the commencement of the term of Chester A. Arthur as President, following the death of President James A. Garfield
American Red Cross
A humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States
Established in Washington, D.C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton, who became the first president of the organization
Booker T. Washington goes to Tuskegee
BKT was an African-American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States
In 1881 he was named as the first leader of the new Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
Under his direction, Tuskegee students literally built their own school: making bricks, constructing classrooms, barns and outbuildings; and growing their own crops and raising livestock; both for learning and to provide for most of the basic necessities
The Greatest Show On Earth
Phineas Taylor Barnum was an American showman and entertainer remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus
Chinese Exclusion Act
A United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882
It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers
Federal law proscribed entry of an ethnic working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities
Social Gospel
A Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the United States and Canada
The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems
Issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war
Immigration Reform
The U.S. population was 50,155,783. More than 5.2 million immigrants entered the country between 1880 and 1890
First federal immigration laws suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years and barred Chinese in U.S. from citizenship. Also barred convicts, lunatics, and others unable to care for themselves from entering. Head tax placed on immigrants
Civil Right Cases
A group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review
The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments
Pendleton Act
A federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit
The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation
Northern Pacific Railway
A transcontinental railroad that operated across the United States from Minnesota to the Pacific Coast
Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former president Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in western Montana on Sept. 8, 1883
It took over 40 million acres of land grants
Time Zones
A region that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes
It is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time, so time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions
Brooklyn Bridge
The Brooklyn Bridge was opened for use on May 24, 1883
The opening ceremony was attended by several thousand people and many ships were present in the East Bay for the occasion
President Chester A. Arthur and New York Mayor Franklin Edson crossed the bridge to celebratory cannon fire and were greeted by Brooklyn Mayor Seth Low when they reached the Brooklyn-side tower
Buffalo Bill
William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody was an American soldier, bison hunter and showman
Buffalo Bill received the Medal of Honor in 1872 for service to the US Army as a scout
One of the most colorful figures of the American Old West, Buffalo Bill became famous for the shows he organized with cowboy themes, which he toured in Great Britain and Europe as well as the United States
Metropolitan Opera House
The Metrolpolitan Opera House is located on Broadway at Lincoln Square in the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City
US Outlaws the Ghost Dance
A religious movement incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems
Proper practice of the dance would reunite the living with the spirits of the dead and bring peace, prosperity, and unity to native peoples throughout the region
US outlawed it
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway , often abbreviated to Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States
The Santa Fe railway was chartered on February 11, 1859, to join Atchison and Topeka, Kansas, with Santa Fe, New Mexico
Southern Pacific
An American Railway
Extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento
Republican political activists who bolted from the United States Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884
They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine
Huck Finn
A novel by Mark Twain, first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884
The book is noted for its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River
Is a bildungsroman of the young boy Huck Finn and his enslaved friend Jim
Cleveland Inauguration
The inauguration of Grover Cleveland as the 22nd President of the United States took place on March 4, 1885
Marshall Field's
Marshall Field’s, was an upscale department store in Chicago, Illinois, that grew to become a major chain before being acquired by Macy's, Inc., on August 30, 2005
Louis Sullivan Skyscraper
Louis Henry Sullivan was an American architect
Is often called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism"
He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper
Linotype Machine
A "line casting" machine used in printing
Along with letterpress printing, linotype was the industry standard for newspapers, magazines and posters from the late 19th century to the 1960s and 70s
The Rise of Silas Lapham
A realist novel by William Dean Howells published in 1885
The story follows the materialistic rise of Silas Lapham from rags to riches, and his ensuing moral susceptibility
Wabash Case
The case of Wabash Vs Illinois was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court on April 14 of 1886
A decision was made on October 25, 1886
The case centered on the state of Illinois and the Wabash Railway Co. over who controlled shipping rates and charges
The Supreme Court decision established that states had limited rights to control interstate commerce
Haymarket Riot
Aftermath of a bombing that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago
An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting
The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; scores of others were wounded
The American Federation of Labor was the first federation of labor unions in the United States
It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor
Statue of Liberty
A colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New York Harbor, in Manhattan, New York City
A gift to the United States from the people of France
The statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom
Emily Dickinson Dies
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life
Dawes Severalty Act
The Dawes Act of 1887 adopted by Congress in 1887
Authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians
Tariff Reform
Grover Cleveland's message to Congress in 1887 highlighted the injustice of taking more money from the people than the government needed to pay its operating expenses
Cleveland's opinion on the tariff was that of most Democrats: that the tariff ought to be reduced
Interstate Commerce Act
A United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices
The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just"
It also required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination, a form of price discrimination against smaller markets, particularly farmers
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States and Canada
Hatch Act
Gave federal funds, initially of $15,000 each, to state land-grant colleges in order to create a series of agricultural experiment stations, as well as pass along new information, especially in the areas of soil minerals and plant growth
San Francisco Examiner
A free daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, California, United States
Traditionally one of the city's leading newspapers
End of the Long Drive
Cattle drives were the method used to move herds of cattle from grazing land to the slaughter house or to another location for the winter
When the railroads were built across much of the U.S. west coast, they started to move cattle in railroad cattle cars
It was faster than the old methods of using cattle drives, which ended in the late 1800's
All American Baseball World Tour
In 1888, former pitching great, Albert Spalding, assembled a tour of top baseball talent to spread baseball to the world's masses
The tour included stops in New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Egypt, Italy, France, and England
Games were played by the Sphynx in Egypt, the Villa Borghese in Rome and the Crystal Palace Grounds in London
Looking Backward
A utopian science fiction novel by Edward Bellamy, a lawyer and writer from Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts
It was first published in 1888
According to critics, Looking Backward is "one of the most remarkable books ever published in America"
It influenced a large number of intellectuals, and appears by title in many of the major Marxist writings of the day
Billion Dollar Congress
The Fifty-first United States Congress
It met in Washington, D.C., from March 4, 1889, to March 4, 1891, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Benjamin Harrison
It was responsible for a number of pieces of landmark legislation, many of which asserted the authority of the federal government
Thomas Reed
U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889–1891 and from 1895–1899
He was a powerful leader of the Republican Party
During his tenure as Speaker of the House, he served with greater influence than any Speaker who came before, and he forever increased its power and influence for those who succeeded him in the position
A country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean
The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and Savai'i, one of the biggest islands in Polynesia
Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976
Pan American Conference
Meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade
James G. Blaine, a United States politician, proposed establishment of closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors
Blaine hoped that ties between the United States and its southern counterparts would open Latin American markets to US trade
Farmer's Alliance
Organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished in the 1870s and 1880s
One of the goals of the organization was to end the adverse effects of the crop-lien system on farmers in the period following the American Civil War
The Alliance also generally supported the government regulation of the transportation industry
Oklahoma Land Rush
First land run into the Unassigned Lands and included all or part of the 2013 modern day Canadian, Cleveland, Kingfisher, Logan, Oklahoma, and Payne counties of the U.S. state of Oklahoma
An estimated 50,000 people lined up for their piece of the available two million acres
ND, SD, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Washington
The Territory of Dakota was an organized territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota
The Territory of Idaho was an organized territory of the United States that existed from March 4, 1863, until July 3, 1890, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Idaho
The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington.
Moody Bible Institute
A Christian institution of higher education that was founded by evangelist and businessman Dwight Lyman Moody in 1886
Since its founding, MBI's main campus has been located in the Near North Side of Chicago
Hull House
A settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House opened its doors to recently arrived European immigrants
Jim Crow
The Jim Crow laws were racial segregation laws enacted between 1876 and 1965 in the United States at the state and local level
Starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans
The separation in practice led to conditions for African Americans that tended to be inferior to those provided for white Americans
McKinley Tariff
An act of the United States Congress framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890
The tariff raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competition
A political doctrine where one sides with "the people" against "the elite"
Populist sentiment contributed to the American Revolutionary War, and continued to shape the young United States afterward
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
A United States federal law enacted on July 14, 1890
Did not authorize the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted
It increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase on a recurrent monthly basis to 4.5 million ounces
Farmers had immense debts that could not be paid off due to deflation caused by overproduction, and they urged the government to pass the Act in order to boost the economy and cause inflation, allowing them to pay their debts with cheaper dollars
Sherman Antitrust Act
A landmark federal statute on United States competition law passed by Congress in 1890
It prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anti competitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts
American Tobacco Company
A tobacco company founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke through a merger between a number of U.S. tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter and Goodwin & Company
The company was one of the original 12 members of the Dow Jones Industrial Average in 1896
Gibson Girl
The Gibson Girl began appearing in the 1890s and was the personification of the feminine ideal of beauty portrayed by the satirical pen-and-ink illustrations of illustrator Charles Dana Gibson during a 20-year period that spanned the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in the United States
National American Women's Suffrage Association
An American women's rights organization formed in May 1890
The NAWSA continued the work of both associations by becoming the parent organization of hundreds of smaller local and state groups
By helping to pass woman suffrage legislation at the state and local level
End of the Frontier
When the eleventh U.S. Census was taken in 1890, the superintendent announced that there was no longer a clear line of advancing settlement, and hence no longer a frontier in the continental United States
Historian Frederick Jackson Turner used the statistic to announce the end of the era in which the frontier process shaped the American character
Fresh farmland was increasingly hard to find after 1890
Wounded Knee
Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota
It was the last battle of the American Indian Wars
At least 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 wounded
Principles of Psychology
A monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890
There were four methods in James' psychology: analysis, introspection, experiment and comparison
Principles is an important source for the history of psychology in the 19th century
Alfred T. Mahan
A United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century"
His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact; it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890)
Jacob Riis
A Danish American social reformer, journalist and social documentary photographer
He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography
A United States National Park spanning eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa and Madera counties in the central eastern portion of the U.S. state of California
The park, which is managed by the National Park Service, covers an area of 761,268 acres
President Abraham Lincoln's signed the Yosemite Grant in 1864
A national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States
It was established on September 25, 1890
The park spans 404,063 acres
Social Democratic Party
The Social Democratic Party of America (SDP) was a short-lived political party in the United States, established in 1898. The group was formed out of elements of the Social Democracy of America
New Orleans Crisis - Italy
The lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans in 1891
The largest mass lynching in American history, was a terribly violent occasion
Provoked an international crisis as Italy formally protested and demanded restitution to the families of the victims.
The lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans in 1891
The largest mass lynching in American history, was a terribly violent occasion
Provoked an international crisis as Italy formally protested and demanded restitution to the families of the victims.
James Naismith
A Canadian American sports coach and innovator
He invented the sport of basketball in 1891
He wrote the original basketball rulebook, founded the University of Kansas basketball program, and lived to see basketball adopted as an Olympic demonstration sport
A private research university in Stanford, California in the northwestern Silicon Valley near Palo Alto
The university officially opened on October 1, 1891 to 555 students
On the university's opening day, Founding President David Starr Jordan said to Stanford's Pioneer Class: "Stanford is hallowed by no traditions; it is hampered by none. Its finger posts all point forward"
Central YMCA NYC
The YMCA of Greater New York is a community service organization that promotes programs that build spirit, mind and body
The YMCA focuses on the City’s youth
No one is turned away because of an inability to pay
It is the largest YMCA in North America and also New York City’s largest private youth-serving organization
Valparaiso Crisis - Chile
A diplomatic incident that took place between Chile and the United States, after the 1891 Chilean Civil War
It remains a nodal event because it marked a dramatic shift in United States–Chile relations
It was triggered by the stabbing of two United States Navy sailors from the USS Baltimore in front of the "True Blue Saloon" in Valparaíso on October 16, 1891
James B. Weaver
A United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party
He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century
An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the People's Party in the 1892 election.
Homestead Strike
An industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892
The battle was one of the most serious disputes in U.S. labor history
The final result was a major defeat for the union and a setback for efforts to unionize steelworkers
Coeur d'Alene
A city in Idaho where a labor strike broke out
The labor strike started because mine operators reduced wages because railroad costs went up
The strike turned violent
Motivation for the founding of the Western Federation of Miners
Corbitt vs. Sullivan
Two boxing stars of their age
Sports like boxing had become popular because men needed other ways to prove their manliness
"Gentlemen Jim" Corbitt was younger and faster and knocked out John L. Sullivan
Low Frame Bicycle
Biking and other outdoor activities also became more popular
It originally was used primarily for women because they could mount them while wearing a skirt
However because it was quick to mount and dismount it was useful for delivery boys
Sierra Club
Founded in 1892 by John Muir in San Francisco California
It's America's oldest, largest, and most influential grassroots environmental organization
It's goals include preserving and conserving the environment and resources
Tom Watson
An American politician, attorney, newspaper editor, and writer from Georgia
He was a leader of the Populist Party, attacking banks, railroads, and large businesses
He became a member in The House where he pushed through legislation like the Rural Free Delivery, allowing no extra fee for those who lived in rural areas to receive mail
Pribilof Island- Canada
Group of 4 volcanic islands off the coast of Alaska in the Bering Sea known for fur seals
Many people were hunting these seals depleting the population
US vessels began seizing Canadian sealers off the coast of this island
A tribunal ruled against the US in 1893
Cleveland refuses Hawaiian annexation
Small group of businessmen backed by US armed soldiers and marine imprisoned the queen and seized 1.75 million acres
President Cleveland however looked further into the bloodless revolution
He believed that the monarchy should be restored but Congress disagreed
However Congress did delay annexation of Hawaii
Depression of 1893
Marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and risky railroad financing which resulted in bank failures
Started with the bankruptcy of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad
People panicked and began trying to withdraw their money from banks
Troubles in Europe also caused foreign investors to try and cash in the investments for gold
Great Northern
An American Class 1 railway running from Saint Paul, Minnesota to Seattle, Washington
It was created by James J. Hill
It is the most northern transcontinental railroad and the only completely privately funded transcontinental railroad
The railroad was continuously improved over time
Sanford Dole
Dole agreed to be the leader of a committee that was formed to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani and to seek annexation to the US
The queen was deposed and Dole was made president of the temporary government
He was appointed as the first Governor by McKinley when Hawaii finally became a territory
Sears, Roebuck and Co.
Founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck
It was a mail order catalog
Julius Rosenwald took over in 1895 and greatly expanded its sales and profit
It later expanded and began opening department stores
Henry St. Settlement
Non-profit social service agency in New York City
Founded by Progressive reformer and nurse Lillian Wald
It was first called the Nurse's Settlement
Helped poor citizens, especially immigrants
The organization expanded and is still around today
Anti-Saloon League
Founded in Ohio as a state organization, soon spread
Most successful political action group that forced the prohibition issue into the forefront of state and local elections
Howard Hyde Russell was the first leader of the league
It received wide support from religious groups and women
Princeton vs. Yale
American interest in football began to grow because it was seen as a sport where men could show their manliness
Yale had a 37 game winning streak and Princeton was undefeated for the season
Princeton won 6-0
Many Americans were upset that football had become the focus on Thanksgiving Day
Frederick Jackson Turner
He was a historian based at the University of Wisconsin and later Harvard
Best known for his essay "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
Argued that the moving western frontier shaped American democracy and American character
Worried Americans about what we would do once we lost a frontier
Maggie, A Girl Of The Streets
A novel by American author Stephen Crane
It is about a young girl who is driven to unfortunate circumstances by poverty
It was seen as a radical book at the time because of its literary realism
Shows hits of naturalism although Crane denies that it influenced his writing
Columbian Exhibition
A world fair held in Chicago to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the new world
Largely designed by Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmstead
The centerpiece of the fair was a large waterpool which represented the ocean Columbus had to cross
It had a large effect on architecture, sanitation, and the arts
Coxey's Army
A peaceful protest march of unemployed Americans led by Populist Jacob Coxey
They marched on DC in 1894, during economic depression
It did not influence policy makers the time
It did demonstrate people's frustration with the economy and raised awareness for unemployment
Republic of Hawaii
It was the temporary government of Hawaii between the time that the queen was overthrown and before it became a territory in 1900
Dole was it's first and only president
The government had a President and 2 houses of the legislative branch
Wilson Gorman Tariff
The law slightly reduced tariffs set by McKinley and set an income tax of 2% on those who made over $4,000 a year
It was signed into action by Woodrow Wilson, as a result of the passage of the 16th amendment
This attempt was largely supported by Democrats and rejected by Republicans
Pullman Strike
A nationwide railroad strike
It pitted the American Railway Union against the Pullman company
Caused by reduction in wages, it began in Chicago when many factory workers went on strike
The ARU called a massive boycott against all Pullman carts
30 people were killed in response to riots and sabotage and $80 million in damage in total was caused
Venezuelan boundary dispute-Britain
There was a longstanding dispute with the United Kingdom about the territory of Essequibo and Guayana Esequiba, which both claimed to own
US intervened to settle the dispute, and had a convention in Paris to decide
It said most of the territory was part of the British Guiana, just as the UK had claimed
Cuban Revolt
The last of three wars Cuba fought against Spain for independence
The last few months America became involved and it became known as the Spanish American War
America did not get involved in 1898
Leaders included Maximo Gomez, ,Calixto Garcia, and Jose Marti
JP Morgan's Loan
At the depths of the panic of 1893, American treasury was almost out of Gold
President Grover was still adamant about the gold standard
He made a secret deal and accepted Morgan's offer to join with the Rothschilds and supply the U.S. Treasury with 3.5 million ounces of gold to refill the treasury
US v EC Knight Co.
Known as the "Sugar Trust Case"
American Sugar Refining Company gained control of the E. C. Knight Company and several others which resulted in a 98% monopoly of the American sugar refining industry
The Supreme Court's ruling limited government's power to control monopolies
President Grover had directed the national government to sue the Knight Company under the provisions of the Sherman Antitrust Act to prevent the acquisition
Therefor it weakened the Sherman Antitrust Act
Red Badge of Courage
The Red Badge of Courage is a war novel by American author Stephen Crane
It took place during the American Civil War
The story is about a young private of the Union Army, Henry Fleming, who flees from the field of battle
Overcome with shame, he longs for a wound—a "red badge of courage"
Plessey v. Ferguson
On a train in New Orleans, Homer Adolph Plessy, who was 7/8 Caucasian, took a seat in a "whites only" car
He was arrested when he refused to move
The Court held that segregated facilities were allowed as long as they were equal, which they often were not, but this was ignored by the courts
Utah became the 45th state admitted to the Union on January 4, 1896
It had been a territory since 1850
The controversies stirred by the Mormon religion's dominance of the territory is regarded as the primary reason behind the long delay of 46 years between the organization of the territory and its admission to the Union
Mark Hanna
He was a Republican Senator from Ohio
He was the political manager of President McKinley
Hanna had made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900
Hanna's fundraising broke records, and once initial public enthusiasm for William Jennings Bryan and his program subsided, McKinley was comfortably elected
Cross of Gold Speech
Delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity and was against the gold standard
"You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold"
He still lost the election
National Association of Colored Women
It was created when the National Federation of African-American Women, the Women's Era Club of Boston, and the National League of Colored Women of Washington, DC, and smaller organization merged together
Its 2 leading members were Josephine Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell
Their original intention was to furnish evidence of the moral, mental and material progress made by people of color through the efforts of our women
George Washington Carver goes to Tuskegee
Carver was an American scientist, botanist, educator, and inventor
He is best known for his promotion of alternative crops to cotton, such as peanuts, soybeans and sweet potatoes, which also aided nutrition for farm families
He tought at Tuskegee for over 47 years
WEB Du Bois
He graduated from Harvard where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate
He became a professor at Atlanta University
He was the leader of the Niagara Movement
He insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation
Du Bois founded and edited "The Horizon: A Journal of the Color Line"
Lyrics of a Lowly Life
Was Paul Laurence Dunbar's first commercially published book
It was comprised of poetry
William Dean Howells, a well-established white literary critic, wrote the introduction to the book giving it a broader appeal
Contains poems both in proper english and in "Negro" dialect
McKinley inauguration
McKinley became the 25th president of the US
His vice president was Garret Hobart
It was the first inauguration to be recorded on film
He was assassinated 6th months into his second term in 1901
Dingley Tariff
Act introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley
It raised tariffs in US to counteract the Wilson Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates
It had 850 amendments attached onto it
It remained in effect for 12 years
Library of Congress
Under Librarian Ainsworth Rand Spofford the Library was largely reorganized and expanded
He led the construction of a new building to house the Library, and transformed the Librarian of Congress position into one of strength and independence
After the expansion and organization the library began to grow and develop more rapidly
Across the Plains
The Amateur Emigrant written by Robert Louis Stevenson
It is his travel memoir of his journey from Scotland to California
The middle portion of the trip is documented in Across the Plains
It shows many of the difficult social issues confronted by Stevenson at the time
US v. Wong Kim Ark
Wong Kim had been born in US to Chinese parents and was denied re-entry after a trip abroad
The Supreme Court ruled in his favor
It said everyone born in the United States is a U.S. citizen
Jus Soli, Jus Sanguinis
Jus Soli: is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship
Jus Sanguinis: is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state
America accepted Jus Soli
Sinking the Maine
It was sent to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban revolt against Spain
She exploded suddenly without warning and sank quickly, killing nearly three quarters of her crew in Havana Harbor
Many blamed Spain and wanted immediate action
Spanish American War
It was the result of America intervening in the Cuban War of Independence
President McKinley ended up being pushed into the war, which he had hoped to avoid
America was able to win easily
Resulted in Treaty of Paris of 1898, which greatly favored US interests
Teller Amendment
An amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress in reply to President McKinley's War Message
Made the condition that the US couldn't annex Cuba but only leave it to its people
Proposed by Senator Henry M. Teller
Treaty of Paris
Ended the Spanish American War
Spain surrendered control of Cuba and ceding Puerto Rico, parts of the Spanish West Indies, the island of Guam, and the Philippines to the United States
It was signed on December 10, 1898 and came into effect on April 11, 1899
Signaled end of Spanish Empire in the Americas
Admiral Dewey at Manila Bay
The Battle of Manila Bay took place on 1 May 1898, during the Spanish-American War
George Dewey led the American Asiatic Squadron
They engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo
Dewey was later honored with promotion to the special rank of Admiral of the Navy; a rank that no one has held before or since in the United States Navy
Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Philippines, Wake Island
Hawaii became an organized incorporated territory of the United States in July 7, 1898
The other US acquisitions were obtained from the Treaty of Paris with Spain
Women and Economics
A book written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman and published in 1898
Discusses themes such as the transformation of marriage, the family, and the home
Her central argument is the economic independence and specialization of women as essential to the improvement of marriage, motherhood, domestic industry, and racial improvement
Anti-Imperialist League
An organization established on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area
Believed imperialism violated the fundamental principles of republican government
George S. Boutwell was first president of the League
Philippines Treaty
In Treaty of Paris Spain ceded Philippines to US, not recognizing it as an independent nation
Fighting erupted between United States and Filipino revolutionary forces on February 4, 1899, and quickly escalated into the 1899 Second Battle of Manila
Relations remained poor, but US gradually passed act improving the conditions of the Philippines
Indian Reorganization Act
U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans
These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis
Restored to Indians the management of their assets
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
An African-American civil rights organization
Its mission is to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination
Direct result of Race Riot in Springfield Illinois
Mary White Ovington, William English Walling, and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born
Indian Citizenship
Act proposed by Homer P. Snyder
Granted full U.S. citizenship to Native Americans
Indians did not have to apply for citizenship or give up their tribal citizenship under the act
Gospel of Wealth
Article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich
Believed wealthy should redistribute their surplus means in a responsible and thoughtful manner
Carnegie himself gave generously to the public, he established several libraries and other important public buildings
The Awakening
It was originally titled A Solitary Soul, is a novel by Kate Chopin
The plot centers on Edna Pontellier who struggles to reconcile her increasingly unorthodox views on femininity and motherhood with the prevailing social attitudes of the South
It is an important early work of feminism
The Conjure Woman
A collection of seven stories by Charles W. Chesnutt, a black writer from the South
The stories deal with the racial issues facing the South after the Civil War
The stories are derived from African-American folk tales and include many supernatural occurrences built around hoodoo conjuring traditions
Sister Carrie
A novel by Theodore Dreiser about a young country girl who moves to the big city
She starts realizing her own American Dream, first as a mistress to men that she perceives as superior, and she later becomes a famous actress
Dreiser had difficulty finding a publisher, and the book had little success at first
Foraker Act
Established government in Puerto Rico
Also outlawed cockfighting
It was sponsored by Ohio Senator Joseph B. Foraker
McKinley signed it into law in 1900
New government had a governor and an 11-member executive council, a House of Representatives, and a judicial system with a supreme court
Platt Amendment
An amendment to the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill
It established the conditions for the withdrawal of US troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War
Defined Cuban US relations
Insular Cases
Several U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning the status of territories acquired by the United States in the Spanish–American War
The Court held that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control
Newlands Reclamation Act
A law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West
The act set aside money from sales of semi-arid public lands for the construction and maintenance of irrigation projects
Newly irrigated land would be sold and money would be put into a revolving fund that supported more such projects
Led to many western rivers being dammed
Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty
Treaty signed on November 18, 1903, by the US and Panama, that established the Panama Canal Zone and the resulting construction of the Panama Canal
Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla was the negotiator for Panama while US Secretary of State John Hay negotiated for the US
Panama was to receive a payment from the U.S. up to $10 million and an annual rental payment of $250,000
With the backing of the US, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the Panama Canal to be built
President Teddy Roosevelt was a strong proponent of backing Panama because of the Panama Canal
Boxer Rebellion
It was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian movement which took place in China between 1899 and 1901
Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 authorized war on foreign powers
Great powers intervened and defeated China humiliatingly
Open Door Policy
US policy that would grant multiple international powers equal access to China, but none of them were in total control of the country
Mainly used to mediate competing interests of the colonial powers without much meaningful input from the Chinese
Puerto Rico Citizenship
First legislated in the Foraker Act, later recognized in the Puerto Rican constitution
Puerto Rican citizenship replaced the Spanish citizenship that Puerto Ricans enjoyed at the time America invaded
This citizenship was reaffirmed by the United States Supreme Court in 1904 by its ruling in Gonzales v. Williams
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